Search quality evaluator guidelines

General Guidelines

 

March 5, 2024

 

General Guidelines Overview 5

Introduction to Search Quality Rating 6

Part 1: Page Quality Rating Guideline 9

 

Part 2: Understanding Search User Needs 85

Part 3: Needs Met Rating Guideline 103

Appendix 1: Using the Evaluation Platform 163

Appendix 2: Guideline Change Log 170

 

General Guidelines Overview

 

Welcome to the Search Quality Rating Program!

 

As a Search Quality Rater, you will work on many different types of rating projects. The General Guidelines primarily cover Page Quality (PQ) rating and Needs Met (NM) rating; however, the concepts are also important for many other types of rating tasks.

 

For brevity, we refer to “Search Quality Raters” as “raters” in these guidelines.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction to Search Quality Rating

0.0 The Search Experience

 

The World Wide Web is a vast collection of online information and content. Internet search engines provide a powerful way to explore this online universe. There are many ways people search: people may type words into a search box in a browser, speak to a mobile phone or assistant device, use search engine autocomplete features, etc.

 

People search the Internet for a variety of purposes, ranging from accomplishing a quick task to researching a topic in depth. A search may be part of a long-term project, such as a home remodel or vacation planning. A search may be done when someone is bored and looking for entertainment, such as a search for [funny videos]. A search may be a single question asked during a critical moment of a person’s life, such as [what are the symptoms of a heart attack?].

 

Search engines exist to help people find what they are looking for. To do that, search engines must provide a diverse set of helpful, high quality search results, presented in the most helpful order.

 

Different types of searches need very different types of search results. Medical search results should be high quality, authoritative, and trustworthy. Search results for [cute baby animal pictures] should be adorable. Search results for a specific website or webpage should have that desired result at the top. Searches that have many possible meanings or involve many perspectives need a diverse set of results that reflect the natural diversity of meanings and points of view.

 

People all over the world use search engines; therefore, diversity in search results is essential to satisfy the diversity of people who use search.

 

Finally, search results should help people. Search results should provide authoritative and trustworthy information, not lead people astray with misleading content. Search results should allow people to find what they’re looking for, not surprise people with unpleasant, upsetting, offensive, or disturbing content. Harmful, hateful, violent, or sexually explicit search results are only appropriate if the person phrased their search in a way that makes it clear that they are looking for this type of content, and there is no other reasonable interpretation of the words used in their search.

 

 

0.1 The Purpose of Search Quality Rating

As a Search Quality Rater, you will help evaluate search engine quality around the world. Good search engines give results that are helpful for people in their own specific language and locale.

 

No single rating can directly impact how a particular webpage, website, or result appears in Google Search, nor can it cause specific webpages, websites, or results to move up or down on the search results page. Using ratings to position results on the search results page would not be feasible, as humans could never individually rate each page on the open web.

 

Instead, ratings are used to measure how effectively search engines are working to deliver helpful content to people around the world. Ratings are also used to improve search engines by providing examples of helpful and unhelpful results for different searches.

 

As part of your role in the search quality rating program, it is important that you are familiar with and comfortable using a search engine. We encourage you to be an expert in search! For example, experiment with using operators (e.g., quotes or a hyphen) in your searches or try using advanced search options.

 

0.2 Raters Must Represent People in their Rating Locale

It is very important for you to represent people in the locale you evaluate. You must be very familiar with the task language and location in order to represent the experience of people in your locale. If you do not have the knowledge to do this, please inform your employer/company.

 

Unless your rating task indicates otherwise, your ratings should be based on the instructions and examples given in these guidelines. Ratings should not be based on your personal opinions, preferences, religious beliefs, or political views.

Always use your best judgment and represent the cultural standards of your rating locale.

 

 

0.3 Browser Requirements

Check with your employer/company for browser requirements. You may use helpful browser add-ons or extensions, but please do not use add-ons or extensions that interfere with or alter the user experience of the page.

 

 

0.4 Ad Blocking Extensions

Do not use add-ons or extensions that block ads for Needs Met rating or Page Quality rating. These add-ons or extensions may cause you to give incorrect ratings. As a rater, only use an ad blocking extension or add-on if specifically instructed to do so in the project-specific instructions.

 

 

0.5 Internet Safety Information

In the course of your work, you will visit many different webpages. Some of them may harm your computer unless you are careful. Please do not download any executables, applications, or other potentially dangerous files, or click on any links that you are uncomfortable with.

 

It is strongly recommended that you have antivirus and antispyware protection on your computer. This software must be updated frequently or your computer will not be protected. There are many free and for-purchase antivirus and antispyware products available on the web.

 

See here for a Wikipedia page on antivirus software and here for a Wikipedia page on spyware.

 

We suggest that you only open files with which you are comfortable. The file formats listed below are generally considered safe if antivirus software is in place.

  • .txt (text files)
  • .ppt or .pptx (Microsoft PowerPoint)
  • .doc or .docx (Microsoft Word)
  • .xls or .xlsx (Microsoft Excel)
  • .pdf (PDF files) (Adobe Acrobat)

 

If you encounter a page with a warning message, such as “Warning-visiting this web site may harm your computer,” or if your antivirus software warns you about a page, you should not try to visit the page to assign a rating.

 

0.6 The Role of Examples in these Guidelines

The rating concepts in these guidelines apply to all types of content. The examples throughout these guidelines are very important to illustrate how the concepts defined in each section should be applied in rating tasks for different types of webpages and different types of content.

 

Please view each example and keep the following in mind:

  • Webpages and websites change rapidly, so we use images or “snapshots” of webpages in most of our
  • Because some types of content are difficult to view in “snapshot” form, a description of the webpage is provided for each example.
  • The information in the examples was accurate at the time it was added, but content and websites may change over time.
  • Some examples show pages on desktop and some show pages on mobile

 

Part 1: Page Quality Rating Guideline

1.0 Introduction to Page Quality Rating

A Page Quality (PQ) rating task consists of a URL and a grid to record your observations as you explore the landing page and the website associated with the URL. The goal of PQ rating is to evaluate how well the page achieves its purpose.

 

Here’s what you’ll need to be a successful Page Quality rater:

  • Your experience using the web as an ordinary user in your rating
  • In-depth knowledge of these
  • And most importantly—practice doing PQ rating tasks!

 

 

2.0 Understanding Webpages and Websites

Page Quality rating requires an in-depth understanding of websites. We’ll start with the basics. Along the way, we’ll share important information about Page Quality rating, so please read through this section even if you are a website expert!

 

2.1 Important Definitions

 

Here are some important definitions:

 

A search engine is a tool to help people find or interact with content available on the Internet.

 

In these guidelines, the word “user” refers to a person trying to find information or accomplish a task on the Internet. Users are people from many different backgrounds, whose experiences and needs may differ from your own: people of all ages, genders, races, religions, political affiliations, etc.

 

A webpage is connected to the World Wide Web and can be viewed or “visited” using a web browser (e.g., Chrome), a browser on your phone, or a search app. In the 1990s, webpage content was mostly text and links. Today, webpage content includes many forms of media (such as images, videos, etc.) and functionality (such as online shopping features, email, calculator functionality, online games, etc.).

 

A URL is a string of letters, numbers, and punctuation that your web browser uses to “find” and display a webpage. Page Quality rating doesn’t require you to have in-depth understanding of the structure of URLs, i.e., you don’t need to know the difference between host, domain, etc. But if you are interested, see here to read more.

 

A website or site is a group of World Wide Web pages usually containing hyperlinks to each other and made available online by an individual, company, educational institution, government, or organization. Popular websites include Facebook, Wikipedia, Yahoo, YouTube, etc.

 

Note: In these guidelines, we will use the word “website” to refer to a collection of pages owned and controlled by a single entity (individual, business, etc.). But we will also use “website” to refer to major “independent” sections (or hosts) of some websites that were created to achieve separate purposes. For example, the Yahoo website is organized into different sections (or hosts), such as Yahoo Finance (finance.yahoo.com), Yahoo Mail (mail.yahoo.com), Yahoo Sports (sports.yahoo.com), etc. Each of these has its own purpose. It’s OK to refer to each of these sections as a website; for example, the Yahoo Finance website and the Yahoo Sports website. You may also refer to pages on Yahoo Finance or Yahoo Sports as belonging to the Yahoo website.

 

A homepage of a website is the main page of the site. It is usually the first page that users see when the site loads. For example, http://www.apple.com is the homepage of the Apple site, http://www.yahoo.com is the homepage of the Yahoo company site, and http://finance.yahoo.com is the homepage of Yahoo Finance. You can usually find the homepage of a website by clicking on a “home” link or logo link on subpages of a website.

 

A website owner is the person, company, or organization who is responsible for a website.

 

A content creator is the individual(s) or entity (business, organization, etc.) who created the content on a webpage.

 

Important: You must be very comfortable exploring websites, both by clicking links and modifying URLs in the address bar of your web browser. Become a website detective and explorer!

 

 

2.2 Understanding the Purpose of a Webpage

 

The purpose of a page is the reason or reasons why the page was created. Every page on the Internet is created for a purpose, or for multiple purposes. Most pages are created to be helpful for people, thus having a beneficial purpose. Some pages are created merely to make money, with little or no effort to help people. Some pages are even created to harm users. The first step in understanding a page is figuring out its purpose.

 

Why is it important to determine the purpose of the page for PQ rating?

 

  • The goal of PQ rating is to determine how well a page achieves its In order to assign a rating, you must understand the purpose of the page and sometimes the website.
  • By understanding the purpose of the page, you’ll better understand what criteria are important to consider when evaluating that particular page.
  • Websites and pages should be created to help If that is not the case, a rating of Lowest may be warranted. More on this later.

 

As long as the page is created to help people, we will not consider any particular page purpose or type to be higher quality than another. For example, encyclopedia pages are not necessarily higher quality than humor pages.

 

Important: There are highest quality and lowest quality webpages of all different types and purposes: shopping pages, news pages, forum pages, video pages, pages with error messages, PDFs, images, gossip pages, humor pages, homepages, and all other types of pages. The type of page does not determine the PQ rating—you have to understand the purpose of the page to determine the rating.

 

Common helpful or beneficial page purposes include (but are not limited to):

 

  • To share information about a
  • To share a personal experience, perspective, or feelings on a
  • To share pictures, videos, or other forms of
  • To demonstrate a personal talent or
  • To express an opinion or point of
  • To
  • To offer products or
  • To allow users to post questions for other users to
  • To allow users to share files or to download

 

Here are a few examples where it is easy to understand the purpose of the page:

 

Type of Page Purpose of the Page
News website homepage To inform users about recent or important events.
Shopping page To sell or give information about the product.
Video page To share a cute video of a cat.
Currency converter page To calculate equivalent amounts in different currencies.

 

Here is an example (OmNomNomNom Page) of a helpful page where the purpose of the page is not as obvious. At first glance, this page may seem pointless or strange. However, it is a page from a humorous site that encourages users to post photos with mouths drawn on them. The purpose of the page is humor or artistic expression. This page has a helpful or beneficial purpose. Even though the About page on this website is not very helpful, the website explains itself on its FAQ page.

 

2.3 Your Money or Your Life (YMYL) Topics

Pages on the World Wide Web are about a vast variety of topics. Some topics have a high risk of harm because content about these topics could significantly impact the health, financial stability, or safety of people, or the welfare or well-being of society. We call these topics “Your Money or Your Life” or YMYL.

 

YMYL topics may significantly impact or harm one or more of the following:

  • the person who is directly viewing or using the content
  • other people who are affected by the person who viewed the content
  • groups of people or society affected by the actions of people who viewed the content

 

YMYL topics can directly and significantly impact people’s health, financial stability or safety, or the welfare or well-being of society, because of the following reasons:

  • The topic itself is harmful or dangerous. For example, there is clear and present harm directly associated with topics related to self-harm, criminal acts, or violent extremism.
  • The topic could cause harm if the content is not accurate and trustworthy. For example, mild inaccuracies or content from less reliable sources could significantly impact someone’s health, financial stability, or safety, or impact society, for topics like: symptoms of a heart attack, how to invest money, what to do if there is an earthquake, who can vote, or needed qualifications for obtaining a driver’s license.

 

To determine whether a topic is YMYL, assess the following types of harm that might occur:

  • YMYL Health or Safety: Topics that could harm mental, physical, and emotional health, or any form of safety such as physical safety or safety online.
  • YMYL Financial Security: Topics that could damage a person’s ability to support themselves and their
  • YMYL Society: Topics that could negatively impact groups of people, issues of public interest, trust in public institutions, etc.
  • YMYL Other: Topics that could hurt people or negatively impact welfare or well-being of

 

It’s possible to imagine a hypothetical harmful page for any non-harmful topic, such as the science behind rainbows or shopping for pencils: for either of these topics, someone could build a page that has a malicious computer virus download. However, for a specific topic to be YMYL, the topic itself must potentially impact people’s health, financial stability, or safety, or the welfare or well-being of society.

 

Many or most topics are not YMYL and do not require a high level of accuracy or trust to prevent harm. Because YMYL assessment is a spectrum, it may be helpful to think of topics as clear YMYL, definitely not YMYL or something in between. Pages on clear YMYL topics require the most scrutiny for Page Quality rating.

 

Type of Topic Clear YMYL Topic May be YMYL Topic Not or Unlikely YMYL Topic
 

 

 

Information

 

Could significant harm result from inaccurate information?

Evacuation routes for a tsunami

 

Explanation: Inaccurate information on evacuation routes could cause significant harm to people.

Weather forecast

 

Explanation: In most situations, slightly inaccurate information about the weather forecast will not cause harm. People often ask family members “what’s the weather today”.

Music award winners

 

Explanation: This topic is unlikely to cause harm.

 

 

 

Advice about an activity

 

Could significant harm result from poor advice?

When to go to the emergency room

 

Explanation: Bad advice on when to go to the emergency room could cause significant harm.

How often to replace a toothbrush

 

Explanation: This is a casual health topic people commonly discuss with friends. A slightly imperfect suggestion is unlikely to significantly impact health or safety.

How frequently to wash jeans

 

Explanation: This topic is unlikely to cause harm.

 

 

A personal opinion

 

What impact could this opinion have on other people and society?

Personal opinion about why a racial group is inferior

 

Explanation: Pages on this topic have been used to justify or incite violence against groups of people.

Personal opinion about why an exercise is inferior

 

Explanation: While there may be a health concern if the exercise is extreme or risky, most discussions of jogging vs swimming, etc. involve personal preference.

Personal opinion about why a rock band is inferior

 

Explanation: This topic is unlikely to cause harm, although there may be strong opinions involved!

 

News about current events

 

Could this topic significantly impact people and society?

 

For societal impact, consider issues such as elections and trust in public institutions that benefit society.

News about ongoing violence

 

Explanation: People need accurate information to stay safe. Society may also be impacted by information about ongoing violence, as citizens and governments make civic decisions accordingly.

News about a car accident

 

Explanation: The accident itself may have been harmful, but there is likely little risk of future harm from small inaccuracies in reporting about an incident.

News about a local high school basketball game

 

Explanation: This topic is unlikely to cause harm.

 

Sharing on social media

 

Could the social media post cause significant harm?

Could it hurt individuals? Could it damage society if widely shared?

A tide pod challenge post

 

Explanation: This harmful social media challenge was responsible for deaths.

A hot sauce challenge

 

Explanation: While some people may experience some discomfort by tasting various hot sauces, it is unlikely that sharing about such challenges would cause significant harm.

A music video

 

Explanation: This type of content generally has little risk of harm.

 

Online commerce and product reviews

 

Consider the product. Could the product cause significant harm?

Purchasing prescription drugs

 

Explanation: Prescription drugs have the potential to cause harm and require purchase from licensed pharmacies.

Review of a type of car

 

Explanation: While cars are big purchases, many people ask friends and family about cars.

Purchasing pencils

 

Explanation: Pencils and other everyday items are unlikely to cause harm.

 

If you are having trouble deciding whether a topic is YMYL, consider the following questions:

  1. Would a careful person seek out experts or highly trusted sources to prevent harm? Could even minor inaccuracies cause harm? If yes, then the topic is likely YMYL.
  2. Is the specific topic one that most people would be content with only casually consulting their friends about? If yes, the topic is likely not YMYL.

 

Important: For pages about clear YMYL topics, we have very high Page Quality rating standards because low quality pages on such topics could potentially negatively impact a person’s health, financial stability, or safety, or the welfare or well-being of society.

 

 

2.4 Understanding Webpage Content

All of the content on a webpage can be classified as one of the following: Main Content (MC), Supplementary Content (SC), or Advertisements/Monetization (Ads). In order to understand the purpose of a webpage and do PQ rating, you will need to be able to distinguish among these different parts of the page.

 

Webpage design can be complicated, so make sure to click around and explore the page. See what kind of content is behind the tabs and test out the interactive page features. Content behind the tabs may be considered part of the MC, SC, or Ads, depending on what the content is.

 

2.4.1 Identifying the Main Content (MC)

 

Main Content is any part of the page that directly helps the page achieve its purpose. MC can be text, images, videos, page features (e.g., calculators, games), and it can be content created by website users, such as videos, reviews, articles, comments posted by users, etc. Tabs on some pages lead to even more information (e.g., customer reviews) and can sometimes be considered part of the MC.

 

The MC also includes the title at the top of the page (example). Descriptive MC titles allow users to make informed decisions about what pages to visit. Helpful titles summarize the MC on the page.

 

Type of Page and Purpose MC Highlighted in Yellow
News website homepage: the purpose is to inform users about recent or important events. MC – News Homepage
News article page: the purpose is to communicate information about an event or news topic. MC – News Article
Store product page: the purpose is to sell or give information about the product.

● Content behind the Reviews, Shipping, and Safety Information tabs are considered to be part of the MC.

 

MC – Shopping Page

Currency converter page: the purpose is to calculate equivalent amounts in different currencies. MC – Currency Converter
Blog post page: the purpose is to share music used on a TV show. MC – Blog Post Page
Search engine homepage: the purpose is to allow users to enter a query and search the Internet. MC – Search Engine Homepage
Bank login page: the purpose is to allow users to log in to bank online. MC – Bank Login Page

 

2.4.2 Identifying the Supplementary Content (SC)

 

Supplementary Content contributes to a good user experience on the page, but does not directly help the page achieve its purpose. SC is an important part of the user experience. One common type of SC is navigation links that allow users to visit other parts of the website. In some cases, content behind tabs may be considered part of the SC.

 

Sometimes the easiest way to identify SC is to look for the parts of the page that are not MC or Ads.

 

Type of Page and Purpose SC Highlighted in Blue
News article page: the purpose is to communicate information about an event or news topic. SC – News Article
Store product page: the purpose is to sell or give information about the product. SC – Shopping Page
Blog post page: the purpose is to share music used on a TV show. SC – Blog Post Page

 

2.4.3 Identifying Advertisements/Monetization (Ads)

 

Ads may contribute to a good user experience. Advertisements/Monetization (Ads) is content and/or links that are displayed for the purpose of monetizing (making money from) the page. The presence or absence of Ads is not by itself a reason for a High or Low quality rating. Without advertising and monetization, some webpages could not exist because it costs money to maintain a website and create high quality content.

 

There are many different ways to monetize a webpage, including advertisements and affiliate programs. See here for more information on website monetization. Note that monetization on mobile pages may be more subtle than monetization on desktop pages.

 

The most common type of monetization is advertisements. Ads may be labeled as “ads,” “sponsored links,” “sponsored listings,” “sponsored results,” etc. Ads may change when you reload the page, and different users may see different Ads on the same page.

 

Website owners can choose to display Ads on their page (such as by joining an advertising network), but they may not always directly control the content of the Ads. However, we will consider a website responsible for the overall quality of the Ads displayed.

 

Important: For the purpose of these guidelines, we will consider monetized links of any type to be “Ads.” See here for different types of website monetization.

 

Type of Page and Purpose Ads Highlighted in Red
News article page: the purpose is to communicate information about an event or news topic. Ads – News Article
Blog post page: the purpose is to share music used on a TV show. Ads – Blog Post Page
Store product page: the purpose is to sell or give information about the product. No ads – Shopping Page

 

2.4.4 Summary of the Parts of the Page

 

Let’s put it all together.

 

  • Main Content (MC) is any part of the page that directly helps the page achieve its MC is (or should be!) the reason the page exists. The quality of the MC plays a very large role in the Page Quality rating of a webpage.
  • Supplementary Content (SC) is also SC can help a page better achieve its purpose or it can detract from the overall experience.
  • Many pages have advertisements/monetization (Ads). Without advertising and monetization, some webpages could not exist because it costs money to maintain a website and create high quality content. The presence or absence of Ads is not by itself a reason for a High or Low quality rating.

 

On some pages, user reviews and comments may be considered MC, and on other pages they may be considered SC. Use your best judgment and think about the purpose of the page.

 

Do not worry too much about identifying every little part of the page. Think about which parts of the page are the MC. Next, look for the Ads. Anything left over can be considered SC.

 

Type of Page and Purpose MC, SC, & Ads Highlighted
News article page: the purpose is to communicate information about an event or news topic. Summary – News Article
Store product page: the purpose is to sell or give information about the product. Summary – Shopping Page
Currency converter page: the purpose is to calculate equivalent amounts in different currencies. Summary – Currency Converter
Blog post page: the purpose is to share music used on a TV show. Summary – Blog Post Page
Bank login page: the purpose is to allow users to log in to the bank online. Summary – Bank Login Page

 

 

2.5 Understanding the Website

 

Pages often make more sense when viewed as part of a website. Some of the criteria in Page Quality rating are based on understanding the website that the page belongs to.

 

To understand a website, start by finding out who is responsible for the website and who created the content on the page (more information provided in Section 2.5.2). Then, look for information about the website and/or content creators on the website itself. Websites and content creators are usually very eager to tell you all about themselves!

 

You must also look for reputation information about the website and/or content creators. What do outside, independent sources say about them? When there is disagreement between what the website or content creators say about themselves and what reputable independent sources say, trust the independent sources.

 

2.5.1 Finding the Homepage

 

The homepage of a website usually contains or has links to important information about the website. Website owners usually make it easy to get to the homepage from any page on the site.

 

Here’s how to find the homepage of a website:

  1. Examine the landing page of the URL in your PQ rating
  2. Find and click on the link labeled with the name or logo of the website (occasionally labeled as “home” or “main”), which usually appears at the top of the page.

 

Sometimes, you may be given a webpage or website that appears to have no navigation links, no homepage link, and no logo or other means to find the homepage. Even some High or Highest quality pages lack a way to navigate to the homepage. If you can’t find a link to the homepage, modify the URL by removing everything to the right of “.com,” “.org,” “.net,” “.fr,” etc. and refresh the page.

 

Occasionally, your rating task will include a URL for which there are two or more justifiable “homepage” candidates. For example, you may not be sure whether the homepage of the URL https://finance.yahoo.com/calendar is http://finance.yahoo.com or http://www.yahoo.com.

 

Important: When you have more than one homepage “candidate,” please use whichever one offers the most information about the specific webpage in the rating task. Use your judgment. The goal is to understand the webpage and the website(s) it is associated with, not find the one unique, correct homepage.

 

In the following examples, we have included the URL of the page to be evaluated in the rating task, as well as the URL of its associated homepage. We have also included an image that shows where to click on the landing page to navigate to the homepage. In the image, you will see a red box around the link or logo you would click to navigate to the homepage.

 

URL of the Task Page Homepage of the Website Where to click to get to the Homepage
 

 

 

 

http://www.williams-sonoma.c om/products/shun-premier-7- piece-knife-block-set

 

 

 

 

http://www.williams-sonoma.com

Williams-Sonoma Homepage

 

 

This “WILLIAMS-SONOMA” logo shown in the upper center of the page is clickable and takes users to the homepage of the website.

 

 

 

 

http://hms.harvard.edu/about- hms/facts-figures

http://hms.harvard.edu

 

In this case, we will consider the Harvard Medical School page at http://hms.harvard.edu to be the homepage, rather than http://www.harvard.edu (which is the homepage of Harvard University). Clicking the logo at the top of http://hms.harvard.edu/about-hms/facts-figures takes users to http://hms.harvard.edu, not to http://www.harvard.edu.

Harvard Medical School Facts and Figures Page

 

 

This “Harvard Medical School” logo in the upper left part of the page is clickable and takes users to the homepage of the Harvard Medical School website.

 

2.5.2 Finding Who is Responsible for the Website and Who Created the Content on the Page

 

Every page belongs to a website, and it should be clear:

 

  • Who (what individuals, company, business, organization, government agency, ) is responsible for the website.
  • Who (what individuals, company, business, organization, government agency, etc.) created the content on the page you are evaluating. Note that for pages on websites such as forums and social media platforms, people may post content using an alias or username in order to avoid sharing personally identifiable information In these cases, the alias or username is an acceptable way to identify the content creator.

 

Websites are usually very clear about who is responsible for the website and who created the content on the page. There are many reasons for this:

 

  • People may want to showcase their own personal talent, experiences, and
  • Artists, authors, musicians, and other original content creators may want to be known and
  • Commercial websites may have copyrighted material they want to
  • Businesses and organizations may want people to know who they are and what they
  • Stores want customers to feel comfortable buying their products

 

Most websites have “contact us” or “about us” or “about” pages that provide information about who owns the site. Many companies have an entire website or blog devoted to who they are and what they are doing, what jobs are available, etc. Here are some examples:

 

 

In PQ rating tasks, you will need to identify who created the MC on the page. To help you do so, the table below describes the primary content creators for common webpage types. These types can overlap (e.g., a page may have multiple articles, some written by individual authors or journalists and others written by the website owner).

 

Webpage Type Examples Primary Content Creator(s)
The website owner created the page and much of the MC on the page

 

The page may have comments, reviews, or other content posted by users, but the page itself is the responsibility of the website.

● Homepage of a business website

● Introductory page on a personal website

● Product page on an online merchant website

The website itself can be viewed as the primary content creator. Website owners may have content created on their behalf (e.g., a small business may hire a professional web developer to build their website), but they are ultimately responsible for the MC.

 

User comments and reviews may play a significant role on the page. As long as the website creates and actively maintains the page, the website is considered to be the primary content creator.

The website owner created the page, and the MC is produced by authors or other content creators identified by the website

 

The website decides what to publish and is responsible for the content, but there are distinct authors or content creators who provide the MC on the page.

● Newspaper opinion piece written by the editorial board

● Magazine article written by an individual journalist

● Scientific journal paper written by a team of academic researchers

The primary content creators are the journalists, scientists, etc. listed as authors of the content. Often the content creators are individuals, but an organization, company, or institution may also be the content creator.

 

User comments may be present, but they typically are not the focus of the page.

The webpage consists of social media post(s) from a single account representing an individual content creator or organization

 

The social media website owner enables people and organizations to create accounts to post text, images, videos, and other types of content under their account.

● Social media post

● Local business profile page on a social media website

● Video channel on a video sharing website

The primary content creator is the person or organization who created the account and is posting the MC. There may be information about the content creator on a profile page found on the website.

 

Other user comments and reactions such as “likes” may be considered part of the MC.

The webpage is created by multiple users engaging in discussion or posting on social media

 

The website owner enables people to post text, images, and videos or have conversations with other users of the website.

● Forum discussion thread

● Q&A question page

● Search results page on a social media website showing content from many different users

The people posting are the content creators.

 

There is no single primary content creator, and people may be identified only by aliases or usernames.

 

2.5.3 Finding About Us, Contact Information, and Customer Service Information

 

Many websites are interested in communicating with their users. There are many reasons that users might have for contacting a website, from reporting problems such as broken pages, to asking for content removal. Many websites offer multiple ways for users to contact the website: email addresses, phone numbers, physical addresses, web contact forms, etc. Sometimes, this contact information is even organized by department and provides the names of individuals to contact.

 

The types and amount of contact information needed depend on the type of website. Contact information and customer service information are extremely important for websites that handle money, such as stores, banks, credit card companies, etc. Users need a way to ask questions or get help when a problem occurs.

 

For shopping websites, we’ll ask you to do some special checks. Look for contact information—including the store’s policies on payment, exchanges, and returns. Sometimes this information is listed under “customer service.”

 

Some kinds of websites need fewer details and a smaller amount of contact information for their purpose. For example, humor websites may not need the level of detailed contact information we would expect from online banking websites.

 

Occasionally, you may encounter a website or content creator with a legitimate reason for anonymity. For example, personal websites may omit personal contact information such as an individual’s home address or phone number. Similarly, websites with user-generated content may allow the author to identify themself with an alias or username only.

 

To find contact or customer service information for a website, start with the homepage. Look for a “contact us” or “customer service” link. Explore the website if you cannot find a “contact us” page. Sometimes you will find the contact information on a “corporate site” link or even on the company’s official social media page. Be a detective!

 

Note that different locales and different social media platforms may have their own conventions and standards for what information should be available on the website. Please use your judgment and knowledge of your locale.

 

3.0 Overall Page Quality Rating

Now that you are an expert in understanding websites and webpages, here are the high-level steps of Page Quality rating:

 

  1. Assess the true purpose of the If the website or page has a harmful purpose or is designed to deceive people about its true purpose, it should be rated Lowest.
  2. Assess the potential of the page to cause harm as described in these guidelines. Websites or pages that are harmful to people or society, untrustworthy, or spammy as defined in these guidelines should be rated Lowest.
  3. Otherwise, the PQ rating is based on how well the page achieves its purpose as described in these

 

Important: There are harmful pages that are seemingly “official”, “expert”, or “authoritative”. Any type of website may have pages with harmful MC, from user-uploaded videos and forum posts to harmful products sold online to pages to pages that mimic the look of scientific papers or encyclopedia entries. All pages should be evaluated for harm—including pages on government websites, academic institutions, reputable online stores, charities, or other types of generally helpful websites.

 

On Page Quality rating tasks, you will use the Page Quality sliding scale (slider) to assign the overall PQ rating. The slider looks like this:

 

 

 

You may also use the in-between ratings of Lowest+, Low+, Medium+, and High+. Please interpret the “+” as “+ ½,” meaning that the Lowest+ rating is halfway between Lowest and Low, Low+ is halfway between Low and Medium, etc.

 

Identifying Lowest and Low quality pages can be the most difficult part of PQ rating. The guidance in the sections on Lowest and Low is more extensive to help you rate accurately. High and Highest quality pages are typically easier to identify, but be sure to apply the standards and examine the examples throughout these guidelines to help calibrate your ratings. As might be expected, Medium quality pages are commonly found online.

 

 

3.1 Page Quality Rating Considerations

 

The following table summarizes the things that you should consider in Page Quality rating. Upcoming sections of these guidelines will elaborate on these considerations and explain how they apply to pages across the PQ rating scale.

 

Consideration Why it’s Important for Page Quality Rating
The purpose of the page If the page has a harmful purpose, or if it is designed to deceive people about its true purpose or who is responsible for the content, it should be rated Lowest.

 

Otherwise, PQ rating is the process of determining how well a page achieves its purpose.

The potential for the page or website to cause harm as described in these guidelines Websites or pages that are harmful to people or society, untrustworthy, or spammy as described in these guidelines should be rated Lowest.
The topic of the page and the extent to which that topic is YMYL The topic of the page helps determine the standards for your overall PQ assessment. Pages on YMYL topics have higher standards than pages on non-YMYL topics.

 

Consideration Why it’s Important for Page Quality Rating
The type of website Different types of websites and webpages have different expectations for PQ rating. For example, PQ expectations may differ for:

 

● Small hobbyist websites vs. large corporate websites

● Websites involving financial transactions vs. websites that do not require payment or collect personal information

● Websites with content created by ordinary people on a volunteer basis vs. websites with content created by professionals

Information provided by the website and content creator While the information that websites and content creators provide about themselves isn’t always trustworthy, it can provide an important starting point.
Quality of the MC Consider the extent to which the MC is satisfying and helps the page achieve its purpose.
The title of the page The title of the page is considered part of the MC. Descriptive MC titles that summarize the page allow people to make informed decisions about what pages to visit.
The role of Ads and SC on the page Consider the ways in which the Ads and SC contribute to how people experience the page.

 

Remember: Many websites need monetization to share content with users. The presence or absence of Ads alone is not a consideration for PQ rating.

Reputation of the website and content creator Research the reputation of the website and the content creator to learn about how others view the website and who is behind it.
Trustworthiness of the page: E-E-A-T Assess how trustworthy the page is. Experience, Expertise and Authoritativeness can help with your assessment of Trust. Some types of pages require a high level of Trust.

 

Important: These considerations overlap. For example, while examining the quality of the MC, you may notice factual inaccuracies that lower your assessment of Trust. While conducting reputation research, you may find information about the expertise of the content creator which increases your level of Trust. This is how PQ rating is designed to work!

 

3.2 Quality of the Main Content

 

The quality of the Main Content (MC) is one of the most important considerations for PQ rating. The MC plays a major role in determining how well a page achieves its purpose.

 

The unifying theme for evaluating the quality of the MC is the extent to which the MC allows the page to achieve its purpose and offers a satisfying user experience. For most pages, the quality of the MC can be determined by the amount of effort, originality, and talent or skill that went into the creation of the content. For informational pages and pages on YMYL topics, accuracy and consistency with well established expert consensus is important.

 

 

 

 

 

Effort: Consider the extent to which a human being actively worked to create satisfying content. Effort may be direct, such as a person translating a poem from one language to another. Effort may go into designing page functionality or building systems that power a webpage, such as the creation of a page that offers machine translation as a service to users. On the other hand, the automatic creation of thousands of pages by running existing freely available content through existing translation software without any oversight, manual curation, etc., would not be considered to have human effort.

 

For pages like social media posts or forum discussions, the level of participation and depth of conversation is an important part of effort. Contributions from multiple individuals on such pages can add up to a significant amount of total human effort.

Originality: Consider the extent to which the content offers unique, original content that is not available on other websites. If other websites have similar content, consider whether the page is the original source.
Talent or Skill: Consider the extent to which the content is created with enough talent and skill to provide a satisfying experience for people who visit the page.
Accuracy: For informational pages, consider the extent to which the content is factually accurate. For pages on YMYL topics, consider the extent to which the content is accurate and consistent with well-established expert consensus.

 

The purpose of the page, topic of the page, and type of website all play a role in how to evaluate the quality of the MC. For example, consistency with well-established expert consensus is important for medical advice. Skill is important for how-to videos. Talent and originality is important for artistic expression. The amount of effort expected for a short video shared on social media is less than for a full-length, professionally produced documentary on a streaming video website, but both need sufficient effort to create satisfying content for their purpose. Think about what effort, originality, talent, or skill looks like for the type of page that you are evaluating.

 

For each page you evaluate, spend a few minutes examining the MC before drawing a conclusion about it. Read the article, watch the video, examine the pictures, use the calculator, play the online game, etc. Remember that MC also includes page features and functionality, so test the page out. For example, if the page is a product page on a store website, put at least one product in the cart to make sure the shopping cart is functioning. If the page is an online game, try to play the game yourself. Do your best to imagine that you are someone who’s very interested in the topic, functionality, or purpose served by the page, then think about how satisfying the MC would be for that person.

 

High and low quality MC comes in all formats (e.g., text, audio, video, images) and all lengths (e.g., short-form videos and full-length professional documentaries). High and low quality content also exists on all types of websites, from small personal sites to large corporate sites, from forums and social media to websites that handle financial transactions. Think carefully about what helps the page achieve its purpose and what makes the MC satisfying for users.

 

3.3 Reputation of the Website and Content Creators

 

An important part of PQ rating is understanding the reputation of the website. If the website is not the primary creator of the MC, it’s important to research the reputation of the content creator as well.

 

Reputation research should be performed according to the topic of the page. For example, if the page contains medical information, research the reputation of the website and content creator for providing medical information. It’s possible for a website to be a go-to source for one type of content (e.g., humorous videos), but an untrustworthy source for a different type of content (e.g., financial information).

 

A website’s or content creator’s reputation can also help you understand what a website or content creator is best known for. For example, newspapers may be known for high quality, independent investigative reporting while satire websites may be known for their humor. An individual journalist (content creator) may be known for the clarity of their scientific articles while a food blogger (content creator) may be known for the deliciousness of the recipes they post online.

 

Note that a company or person may create content on many different websites. For example, a newspaper might have their own website, upload their video content to a video sharing website, post updates on social media, and contribute content to a TV channel. An expert on a topic might publish research papers, have a lengthy blog, and share short updates on social media. In these cases, you should research the underlying company or content creator.

 

Reputation research is especially important for detecting untrustworthy websites and content creators. Content may look great on the surface, but reputation research can expose scams, fraud, or other signs of harm. You never know what you will find unless you look! Therefore, reputation research is required for all PQ rating tasks.

 

3.3.1 Reputation of the Website

 

A website’s reputation is based on the experience of real users and the opinions of people who are experts. Websites may represent real companies, organizations, and other entities. Reputation research applies to both the website and the actual company, organization, or entity that the website is representing.

 

Many websites are eager to tell users how great they are. Your job is to independently evaluate the Page Quality of the website, not just accept information that appears on one or two pages of the website without further verification. Be skeptical of claims that websites make about themselves, particularly when there is a clear conflict of interest.

 

Instead, look for independent reviews, references, recommendations by experts, news articles, and other sources of credible information about the website. Look for information written by a person or organization, not statistics or other machine-compiled information. News articles, Wikipedia articles, blog posts, magazine articles, forum discussions, and ratings from independent organizations can all be great sources of reputation information.

 

For YMYL topics, the reputation of a website should be judged by what experts in the field have to say. Recommendations from expert sources, such as professional societies, are strong evidence of a positive reputation.

 

Sources of reputation information will also vary according to the topic or type of company/organization/entity that the website represents. For example, you might find that a newspaper (with an associated website) has won journalistic awards. Prestigious awards or a history of high-quality original reporting are strong evidence of positive reputation for news websites.

 

Note that some types of information about a website is not related to its reputation. For example, websites like Similarweb have information about Internet traffic to the website, but do not provide evidence of positive or negative reputation. You can ignore this type of information since it’s not helpful for PQ rating.

 

3.3.2 Customer Reviews as Reputation Information

 

Customer reviews can be helpful for assessing the reputation of a store, business, or any website that offers products or services to users. You may consider a large number of detailed, trustworthy, positive user reviews as evidence of positive reputation for a store or business.

 

However, you should interpret customer reviews with care, particularly if there are only a few. Keep the following in mind:

  • Be skeptical of both positive and negative Anyone can write them, including the website owner or someone whom the store or business hires for this purpose.
  • Try to find as many reviews as possible. Any store or business can get a few negative reviews—this is completely normal and Large stores and companies receive thousands of reviews, and most receive some negative ones.
  • Read the reviews because the content of the reviews matter, not just the number or star Credible, convincing reports of fraud and financial wrongdoing is evidence of extremely negative reputation. On the other hand, a single encounter with a rude clerk or the delayed receipt of a single package should not be considered negative reputation information. Please use your judgment.

 

3.3.3 How to Search for Reputation Information about a Website

 

Here is how to research the reputation of the website:

 

  1. Identify the “homepage” of the For example, for the IBM website, ibm.com is the homepage. You may need to identify the content creator, if it is different from that of the overall website.

 

  1. Using com as an example, try one or more of the following searches on Google:

 

  • [ibm -site:ibm.com] – A search for IBM that excludes pages on com.
  • [“ibm.com” -site:ibm.com] – A search for “ibm.com” that excludes pages on com.
  • [ibm reviews -site:ibm.com] – A search for reviews of IBM that excludes pages on com.
  • [“ibm.com” reviews -site:ibm.com] – A search for reviews of “ibm.com” that excludes pages oncom.

 

Note: When searching for reputation information, try to find sources that were not written or created by the website or the company itself. For example, IBM might have official social media pages that it closely maintains, which would not be considered independent sources of reputation information about the company. See here for a Wikipedia article on identifying and using independent sources.

 

  1. Look for articles, references, recommendations by experts, and other credible information written by people about the website.

 

High quality news articles and informational articles may be good sources of reputation information. Search for such articles. For example, try [ibm site:en.wikipedia.org]. News articles and informational articles can help you learn about a company and may include information specific to reputation, such as awards and other forms of recognition, or also controversies and issues. Note that some informational articles include a message warning users that there are disagreements on some of the content, or that the content may be outdated. This may be an indication that additional research is necessary.

 

  1. Make sure the information you find is appropriate for judging the reputation of the website. For example, reputation information for YMYL topics should come from sources that have expertise in the associated YMYL

 

Here are some examples of reputation information:

 

Website Reputation Information About the Website Description
 

 

 

annualcreditreport.com

Search results for [annualcreditreport.com

-site:annualcreditreport.com]

Wikipedia article about annualcreditreport.com Reputable article about annualcreditreport.com

Positive reputation information: Users in the U.S. can obtain free credit reports on this website by providing their Social Security Number. Note that the Wikipedia article tells us that “AnnualCreditReport.com is the only federally mandated and authorized source for obtaining a free credit report.”
 

 

clevelandclinic.org

Search results for [clevelandclinic.org] Wikipedia article about clevelandclinic.org

Reputable article about the best hospitals in the U.S.

Positive reputation information: According to Wikipedia, the Cleveland Clinic “is currently regarded as one of the top 4 hospitals in the United States” which can be confirmed by reputable news articles cited in the references section. Users can trust medical information on this website.
 

 

 

csmonitor.com

 

Search results for [csmonitor.com

-site:csmonitor.com]

 

Wikipedia article about The Christian Science Monitor

Positive reputation information: Notice the highlighted section in the Wikipedia article about The Christian Science Monitor newspaper, which tells us that the newspaper has won several prestigious awards. From this information, it can be inferred that the csmonitor.com website has a positive reputation.
 

 

 

kernel.org

 

 

Search results for [kernel.org –site:kernel.org] Wikipedia article about kernel.org

Positive reputation information: According to the Wikipedia article, “Kernel.org is a main repository of source code for the Linux kernel, the base of the popular Linux operating system. It makes all versions of the source code available to all users. It also hosts various other projects, like Google Android. The main purpose of the site is to host a repository for Linux kernel developers.”
 

 

 

Site selling children’s jungle gym

Search to find reputation information Search to find reviews

Negative review on a business review page 1 Negative review on a business review page 2 Negative news article

Extremely negative reputation information: This website appears to be a perfectly fine-looking store; however, much evidence of negative reputation can be found. The business has a very low rating on a business review site. There is a news article about financial fraud. There are many reviews on different websites describing users sending money and not receiving anything.
 

 

Site selling products related to eyewear

Search to find reputation information Negative review on a business review page Wikipedia article

Article about business’ criminal behavior

Extremely negative/malicious reputation information: This website engaged in criminal behavior such as physically threatening users.
 

 

Organization serving the hospitalized veteran community

Negative review 1 Negative review 2 Negative review 3 Negative review 4 Extremely negative reputation information: There are many detailed negative articles on news sites and charity watchdog sites about this organization describing fraud and financial mishandling.

 

3.3.4 Reputation of the Content Creators

 

For individual authors and content creators, biographical information articles and online discussions can be a good source of reputation information. Expect to find more formal reputation information about people who create content in a journalistic, scientific, academic, or other traditionally professional capacity, as they often need online credibility for professional success. Educational degrees, peer validation, expert co-authors, and citations can be evidence of positive reputation information for professionals who publish their work. Employment history can also support a positive reputation for topics where training, credentials, or experience are important.

 

Influencers and other individual content creators who earn income on social media platforms often have reputation information available as well, ranging from from biographical details or news articles to less formal reputation sources such as comments by other influencers in their fields.

 

For non-professional content creators including ordinary people who post on social media or forums, you may find informal reputation information on the page itself such as comments by other people about the creators. For example, you may find comments or posts from other users helpful to see what other people think about a particular content creator.

 

3.3.5 What to Do When You Find No Reputation Information

 

You should expect to find some reputation information for large websites and well-known content creators. People or businesses who create content in a professional capacity typically have some reputation information available.

 

However, small websites may have little or no reputation information. This is not indicative of high or low quality. Many small local businesses or community organizations have a small “web presence” and rely on word of mouth.

 

Furthermore, many ordinary people participate in forum discussions or post on social media websites in a personal capacity. People may use an alias or username to post in order to avoid sharing personally identifiable information online. There may be no reputation information available for some individuals. A lack of reputation about people who post personal content is neither a positive nor a negative sign in your assessment of the page.

 

Finally, remember that there are several important considerations involved in PQ rating (refer back to Section 3.1). Reputation is important, but if reputation information is not available for a website or content creator, pay extra attention to other PQ considerations, especially when assessing pages on YMYL topics.

 

3.4 Experience, Expertise, Authoritativeness, and Trust (E-E-A-T)

 

Experience, Expertise, Authoritativeness and Trust (E-E-A-T) are all important considerations in PQ rating. The most important member at the center of the E-E-A-T family is Trust.

Trust: Consider the extent to which the page is accurate, honest, safe, and reliable. The type and amount of Trust needed depends on the page, for example:

  • Online stores need secure online payment systems and reliable customer
  • Product reviews should be honest and written to help others make informed purchasing decisions (rather than solely to sell the product).
  • Informational pages on clear YMYL topics must be accurate to prevent harm to people and
  • Social media posts on non-YMYL topics may not need a high level of Trust, such as when the purpose of the post is to entertain its audience and the content of the post does not risk causing harm.

 

Experience, Expertise and Authoritativeness are important concepts that can support your assessment of Trust:

 

Experience: Consider the extent to which the content creator has the necessary first-hand or life experience for the topic. Many types of pages are trustworthy and achieve their purpose well when created by people with a wealth of personal experience. For example, which would you trust: a product review from someone who has personally used the product or a “review” by someone who has not?
Expertise: Consider the extent to which the content creator has the necessary knowledge or skill for the topic. Different topics require different levels and types of expertise to be trustworthy. For example, which would you trust: home electrical rewiring advice from a skilled electrician or from an antique homes enthusiast who has no knowledge of electrical wiring?
 

 

Authoritativeness: Consider the extent to which the content creator or the website is known as a go-to source for the topic. While most topics do not have one official, Authoritative website or content creator, when they do, that website or content creator is often among the most reliable and trustworthy sources. For example, a local business profile page on social media may be the authoritative and trusted source for what is on sale now. The official government page for getting a passport is the unique, official, and authoritative source for passport renewal.

 

Experience, Expertise, and Authoritativeness may overlap for some page types and topics (for example, someone may develop Expertise in a topic due to first-hand Experience accumulated over time), and different combinations of E-E-A may be relevant to different topics. You should consider the purpose, type, and topic of the page, then ask yourself what would make the content creator a trustworthy source in that context.

 

Trust is the most important member of the E-E-A-T family because untrustworthy pages have low E-E-A-T no matter how Experienced, Expert, or Authoritative they may seem. For example, a financial scam is untrustworthy, even if the content creator is a highly experienced and expert scammer who is considered the go-to on running scams!

 

When it comes to Page Quality rating, your assessment of E-E-A-T should be informed by one or more of the following:

  • What the website or content creators say about themselves: Look at the “About us” page on the website or profile page of the content creator as a starting point. Is the website or content creator a trustworthy source based on this information?
  • What others say about the website or content creators: Look for independent reviews, references, news articles, and other sources of credible information about the website or content creators. Is there independent, reliable evidence that the website or content creator is experienced, has expertise, is authoritative, or is otherwise considered trustworthy? Is there independent, reliable evidence that the website or creator is untrustworthy?
  • What is visible on the page, including the Main Content and sections such as reviews and comments: For some types of pages, the level of experience and expertise may be clear from the MC itself. What evidence can you gather from examining the MC or testing the page out? For example, you may be able to tell that someone is an expert in hair styling by watching a video of them in action (styling someone’s hair) and reading others’ comments (commenters often highlight expertise or lack thereof).

 

Important: The website or content creator may not be a trustworthy source if there is a clear conflict of interest. For example, product reviews by people who own the product and share their experiences can be very valuable and trustworthy. However, “reviews” by the product manufacturer (“Our product is great!”) or “reviews” from an influencer who is paid to promote the product are not as trustworthy due to the conflict of interest.

 

Finally, there are many aspects of Trust, some which are not captured by Experience, Expertise and Authoritativeness. Please consider other aspects in your overall Trust assessment, such as customer service information for online stores or peer-reviewed publications for academic authors. If a page is untrustworthy for any reason, it has low E-E-A-T.

 

3.4.1 YMYL Topics: Experience or Expertise?

 

Pages on YMYL topics can be created for a wide variety of different purposes. If the purpose of a page on a clear YMYL topic is to give information or offer advice, a high level of expertise may be required for the page to be trustworthy.

 

However, sometimes pages on YMYL topics are created to share personal experiences, often regarding difficult life challenges. People turn to each other in times of need to share their own experience, seek comfort or inspiration, and learn from others. Factual information from experts and authoritative sources may not satisfy this need.

 

Pages that share first-hand life experience on clear YMYL topics may be considered to have high E-E-A-T as long as the content is trustworthy, safe, and consistent with well-established expert consensus. In contrast, some types of YMYL information and advice must come from experts.

 

Here are some examples:

 

YMYL Topic Valuable sharing of life Experience Information or advice best left to Experts
Sleep challenges when pregnant

 

(YMYL Health or Safety)

Safe and non-medical tips and tricks for sleeping in the last trimester of pregnancy, provided by people who have personally struggled with this challenge, for example: how to use pillows to sleep comfortably in a position that is safe for babies Sleep medications that are safe during pregnancy
Liver cancer treatment

 

(YMYL Health or Safety)

A sincere and respectful forum discussion where people are describing how they’re coping with liver cancer treatment Different treatment options for liver cancer and the associated life expectancies under each treatment
Filling out tax forms

 

(YMYL Financial Security)

A humorous video from a non-expert content creator about the frustration of doing taxes Instructions on how to fill out tax forms
Saving for retirement

 

(YMYL Financial Security)

Reviews of retirement saving services by people with first-hand experience using these services Advice on how to invest for retirement: how much to save, what kinds of assets to invest in, how much money you will need to retire by a specific age, etc.
How to vote

 

(YMYL Society)

A social media post by an ordinary citizen describing why they personally believe it’s important to vote in local elections Information about who is eligible to vote or how to register to vote

 

4.0 Lowest Quality Pages

Lowest quality pages are untrustworthy, deceptive, harmful to people or society, or have other highly undesirable characteristics. The considerations for Lowest quality include quality of the MC, reputation, E-E-A-T, etc., but there are special checks you will need to complete first.

 

As a reminder, here are the steps for doing PQ rating:

 

  1. Assess the true purpose of the If the website or page has a harmful purpose or is designed to deceive people about its true purpose, it should be rated Lowest.
  2. Assess the potential of the page to cause harm as described in these Websites or pages that are harmful to people or society, untrustworthy, or spammy as specified in these guidelines should receive the Lowest rating.
  3. Otherwise, the PQ rating is based on how well the page achieves its purpose using the criteria outlined in these

 

Steps 1 and 2 are a screening process to quickly detect harmful content before other PQ considerations are applied. To identify Lowest quality pages, start by considering the following:

Initial Consideration Lowest Quality Pages
The purpose of the page The Lowest rating is required if the page has a harmful purpose, or if it is designed to deceive people about its true purpose or who is responsible for the content on the page.
The potential for the page to cause harm as described in these guidelines The Lowest rating is required if the MC is harmful to self or others, harmful to specified groups, or contains harmfully misleading information.
The topic of the page, the type of website, and the extent to which YMYL standards apply A page on any topic or any type of website may qualify for Lowest.

 

Give special scrutiny to pages or websites needing a high level of trust, such as online stores, medical websites, or news coverage of major civic issues.

 

Next, assess the page to determine if any of the criteria for Lowest apply:

 

Lowest Page Quality Assessment Any one of the following is justification for Lowest
Quality of the MC ● The page is hacked, defaced, or spammed.

● The page is gibberish or otherwise makes no sense.

● The MC is copied, auto-generated, or otherwise created without adequate effort.

● The MC is created with so little effort, originality, talent, or skill that the page fails to achieve its purpose.

The title of the page The page title is extremely misleading, shocking, or exaggerated.
The role of Ads and SC on the page The MC is deliberately obstructed or obscured due to Ads, SC, interstitial pages, download links or other content that is beneficial to the website owner but not necessarily the website visitor.
Information provided by the website and content creator A complete lack of information about who is responsible for the website and its content for YMYL pages or other pages requiring trust.
Reputation of the website and content creator A very negative reputation, including a reputation for malicious or harmful behavior.
Trustworthiness of the page: E-E-A-T ● The page or website is highly untrustworthy.

● The lack of experience, expertise, authoritativeness or trust causes the page to fail to achieve its purpose.

 

4.1 Types of Lowest Quality Pages

 

There are many different shapes and forms that Lowest pages can take. To help you keep track, the table below organizes Lowest pages into three broad categories: Harmful, Untrustworthy, and Spammy. These categories can overlap (e.g., pages that contain Harmfully Misleading Information are also Untrustworthy).

 

Type of Lowest Page Description Reference Section
Harmful to Self or Other Individuals Pages that encourage, depict, incite or directly cause physical, mental, emotional or financial harm to self or other individuals.

 

Examples include:

● Detailed instructions on how to commit suicide

● Detailed, realistic, and serious instructions written with the intent to help someone commit murder

 

 

 

Section 4.2

Harmful to Specified Groups Pages that promote, condone, or incite violence or hatred against a Specified Group of people (as defined in Section 4.3).

 

Examples include:

● Content that encourages violence or ill treatment towards a Specified Group

● Content with extremely offensive/dehumanizing stereotypes of a Specified Group

 

 

 

 

Section 4.3

Harmfully Misleading Information Pages that misinform people in a way that could cause harm.

 

Examples include:

● Clearly inaccurate harmful information that can easily be refuted by straightforward and widely accepted facts

● Harmful unsubstantiated theories/claims not grounded in any reasonable facts or evidence

 

 

 

Section 4.4

Untrustworthy Webpages Pages or websites that are deceptive or have untrustworthy characteristics.

 

Examples include:

● Pages or websites with deceptive purpose or design

● Pages or websites designed to manipulate people into actions that benefit the website or other organization while causing harm to self, others or Specified Groups

 

 

 

 

Section 4.5

Spammy Webpages Pages with characteristics of webspam as defined in the Google Search Essentials Guidelines and/or Section 4.6 of these guidelines.

 

Examples include:

● Pages deliberately created with no MC or gibberish MC

● Hacked, defaced, or spammed pages

 

 

 

Section 4.6

 

Important: There is lots of content that many people would find controversial, one-sided, off-putting, or distasteful, yet does not meet the criteria for Lowest as described in these guidelines. Use your judgment to follow the standards outlined throughout Section 4.0 rather than relying on personal opinions.

 

4.2 Harmful to Self or Other Individuals

 

Use the Lowest rating for pages with content that encourages, depicts, incites, or directly causes harm to self or other individuals.

 

Harm includes physical, mental, emotional, or financial harm to people. Pages should be considered Harmful to Self or Other Individuals if they directly attempt to harm people; encourage behavior that may result in harm; depict extremely violent or gory content without a beneficial/educational purpose; or otherwise are severely traumatic to people who view the page.

 

Pages do not have to be harmful to all people to be considered Harmful to Self or Other Individuals. Different people have different levels of vulnerability to scams, awareness of potential dangers (e.g., dangerous feats depicted in stunt videos), and tolerance for viewing violent/disturbing content. If there is a reasonable possibility that viewing a particular page would cause harm to those who are most vulnerable, it should be considered harmful.

 

Pages created with a beneficial purpose that report on, discuss, or inform about harmful actions or events (e.g., fictional entertainment, reputable news, education) should typically not be considered Harmful to Self or Other Individuals. For example, advocacy aimed at drawing attention to harmful, real-world actions or events (such as a webpage describing a protest against domestic violence) would not be considered Harmful to Self or Other Individuals.

 

Here are some examples of content that is vs. is not considered Harmful to Self or Other Individuals:

 

Harmful to Self or Other Individuals NOT Harmful to Self or Other Individuals
● Incitement of violence towards Other Individuals

● Serious death threats or realistic-sounding threats

● Exposing personal information belonging to others with malicious intent to target them or promote harassment towards them (i.e., “doxxing”)

● How-to information that describes how to commit violent acts in an easy-to-replicate way

● Advocating for, glorifying, or trivializing violence and atrocities, or to disparage victim(s) of violence/atrocities

● Depicting or promoting information that facilitates or leads to serious harm to people, or discussions that attempt to justify abuse of people

● Encouraging unsafe behavior or substantially downplays the risks of dangerous activities (e.g., consuming household cleaning products)

● Suicide promotion or pro-anorexia content that encourages people to engage in behavior that can result in hospitalization or death

● Health-related advice that contradicts

well-established expert consensus and could result in serious harm or could prevent someone from undertaking a life-saving treatment

● Depictions of violence in an action movie

● A news story about violent events

● Educational content that may depict violence or gross imagery

● An explanation of scams meant to raise awareness about them

● Portrayals of dangerous activities in a manner that discourages others from attempting the same feat (such as by clearly explaining the risks, describing the expertise and equipment required, etc.)

 

4.3 Harmful to Specified Groups

 

Use the Lowest rating for pages that promote, condone, or incite hatred against a Specified Group of people.

 

For the purposes of Search Quality rating, a Specified Group is a group of people that can be defined on the basis of:

  • Age (e.g., older adults)
  • Caste (e.g., Dalits)
  • Disability (e.g., people who are blind)
  • Ethnicity (e.g., Roma)
  • Gender Identity and Expression (e.g., transgender people)
  • Immigration Status (e.g., student visa holders)
  • Nationality (e.g., Italians)
  • Race (e.g., Asians)
  • Religion (e.g., Christians)
  • Sex/Gender (e.g., men)
  • Sexual Orientation (e.g., lesbians)
  • Veteran Status (e.g., Marines)
  • Victims of a major violent event and their kin (e.g., victims of the Holocaust)
  • Any other characteristic that is associated with systemic discrimination or marginalization (e.g., refugees, people experiencing homelessness)

 

The tone of the harmful content must be either serious (i.e., not joking or satirical) or mean-spirited (i.e., with an intent to demean or promote intolerance) to be considered Harmful to Specified Groups. Comedy or artistic expression related to a Specified Group should not be considered harmful unless it is clearly mean-spirited or has other clear harmful impact.

 

Criticism of objects, philosophies, and ideas are generally not considered Harmful to Specified Groups. For example, negative criticism of a religious doctrine should not be considered targeted at the Specified Group that follows that religion. Remember that the content must promote, condone, or incite hatred of people to be considered Harmful to Specified Groups.

 

Educational pages (e.g., definitions, research, academic papers), news stories, or other pages that have a beneficial purpose of informing society should not be considered Harmful to Specified Groups. Similarly, historical documents/videos that aim to capture the beliefs of different eras should not be considered Harmful to Specified Groups.

 

Here are some examples of content that is vs. is not considered Harmful to Specified Groups:

 

Harmful to Specified Groups NOT Harmful to Specified Groups
● Encourages violence or ill treatment towards a Specified Group

● Promotes intolerance by demonstrating a staunch unwillingness to allow for the views, beliefs, or behavior of a Specified Group

● Implies that one Specified Group is superior or inferior to another

● Contains extremely offensive/dehumanizing stereotypes of a Specified Group. Note that stereotypes can be negative or positive.

● A historical documentary of WWII featuring speeches from Nazi leaders

● A stand-up comedy routine that plays off of stereotypes in a way that is not mean-spirited

● A newspaper article about a hate organization

● The dictionary definition of a slur

● A discussion about a particular religious text and its views on women

 

4.4 Harmfully Misleading Information

 

Use the Lowest rating for pages that mislead people in ways that can cause harm to people and society.

 

Misleading pages may have been produced with the intent to misinform people, or the content creator may believe that the inaccurate information they are sharing is true. There is an especially high standard for accuracy on clear YMYL topics or other topics where inaccurate information can cause harm. Be sure to research consequential facts or claims as necessary and to the extent the task time allows.

 

Pages should be considered to contain Harmfully Misleading Information when they contain at least one of the following:

 

Type of Harmfully Misleading Information Description Examples
Harmful and clearly inaccurate information Content that can be refuted by straightforward and widely accepted facts ● False claims that a world leader died

● False dates for an election

Harmful claims that contradict well-established expert consensus Content that is inconsistent with positions, facts, or findings that are widely agreed upon by authorities in the relevant field ● Claims that lemons cure cancer

● Claims that buying lottery tickets is a guaranteed way to save for retirement

Harmful unsubstantiated theories/claims Content that is not grounded in any reasonable facts or evidence, especially those that could erode confidence in public institutions. This includes unsubstantiated theories that have been thoroughly debunked or are too outlandish to be given credence. ● Claims that the 9-11 attacks were planned by the U.S. government

● Claims that world leaders are lizard people

 

Harmfully Misleading Information can occur from any websites or content creators – even seemingly “expert”, “authoritative” or “official” ones. Any type of page with Harmfully Misleading Information should be rated Lowest, regardless of the source.

 

However, note that some types of information are subjective, debatable, unverifiable, or inconsequential. For example, pages should not be considered to contain Harmfully Misleading Information if they exclusively contain:

  • Non-YMYL content created with a clear entertainment purpose, containing no hard claims of factual accuracy and are not harmful to people or society. Examples include many types of fiction, satire or parody, astrology, folklore, myths, and urban legends.
  • Reviews expressing personal preferences, opinions, or value-based judgments about a product, restaurant, book/movie/TV show, etc.
  • Claims or statements that are reasonably debatable when there is not a single established correct answer or truth (e.g., discussions about the relative effectiveness of different healthcare systems)
  • Insignificant errors or inaccurate information about a trivial topic (e.g., inaccuracies in the height of a celebrity)

 

Pages that aim to persuade others that a certain position or perspective is correct are fairly common on the Internet. Pages with one-sided/opinionated/controversial/polarizing content should not be considered to contain Harmfully Misleading Information unless they could create harm to individuals or Specified Groups (as described above) and contain clearly inaccurate information, contradict well-established expert consensus, or are not grounded by reasonable facts/evidence.

 

A webpage may be considered to have Harmfully Misleading Information based on the MC or on other characteristics of the page or information about the content creator (e.g., the title of an article is harmfully misleading, even if the article on its own is not; a creator blatantly misrepresenting their medical credentials for a video on medical topics).

 

Harmfully Misleading Information can be especially hard to identify because it may require research from outside sources. Reputable fact-checking websites can’t always keep up with the volume of unsubstantiated theories/claims produced by

 

the Internet, and some theories may even claim that debunking information is inaccurate. You should attempt to find high-quality, trustworthy sources to check accuracy and seek out the consensus of experts if you are unsure. Please research theories and claims to the extent the task time allows. If a theory/claim seems wildly improbable and can’t be verified by independent trustworthy sources, you should consider it unsubstantiated.

 

 

4.5 Untrustworthy Webpages or Websites

 

The Lowest rating should be used for pages or websites you strongly suspect are engaging in deceptive or malicious practices.

 

Some untrustworthy pages are created to benefit the website or organization rather than helping people. Some untrustworthy pages may even exist to cause harm to people who engage with the page, such as scams or malicious downloads.

 

Your assessment of untrustworthiness may be based on the content of the page, information about the website, information about the content creator, and the reputation of the website or content creator.

 

Your assessment may also be based on a lack of critically important information. For example, any website involving financial transactions or sensitive information should have comprehensive information about who is responsible for the site and a way to contact the site if something goes wrong. If some aspect of a page or website makes you suspect deception or maliciousness, please look for information about the site. If you cannot find reputation information to confirm your suspicion, carefully explore the site.

 

Sometimes a single page on an unknown website in isolation may seem odd but subsequent exploration shows no concern. However, if you see a pattern of what appears to be deception or manipulation or become concerned about your own safety, please use the Lowest rating and leave the website immediately.

 

Pages with the following characteristics should be considered Untrustworthy:

  • Multiple or significant factual inaccuracies on an informational page which would cause users to lose trust in the webpage as a reliable source of information
  • Inadequate information about the website or content creator for its purpose
  • Lowest E-E-A-T or Lowest reputation
  • Deceptive purpose, deceptive page design, or deceptive intent
  • Deliberately obstructed or obscured MC
  • Characteristics of scams, malicious downloads, or other harmful behavior
  • Any webpage or website designed to manipulate people into actions that benefit the website or other organization while causing harm to self, others, or Specified Groups

 

Important: Highly untrustworthy pages should be given the Lowest rating even if you are unable to “prove” the webpage or site is harmful. Because many people are unwilling to use a highly untrustworthy page, an untrustworthy page or website fails to achieve its purpose.

 

4.5.1 Inadequate Information about the Website or Content Creator for the Purpose of the Page

 

For pages that require a high level of trust, information about who created the content and who is responsible for the content is critical.

 

As discussed in Section 2.5.3, we expect most websites to have some information about who (e.g., what individual, company, business, foundation, etc.) is responsible for the website and who created the MC and some contact information, unless there is a good reason for anonymity. As you will see in the examples below, many types of Lowest pages such as malicious downloads and scams typically have no information or fake information about who is responsible to prevent recourse by people who are harmed.

 

Any site that handles personal, private or sensitive data must provide extensive contact information. This includes sites that ask users to create passwords, share personal information, or conduct financial transactions.

 

YMYL pages or websites that handle sensitive data with absolutely no information about the website or content creator should be rated Lowest.

 

4.5.2 Lowest E-E-A-T and Lowest Reputation of the Website or Content Creator

 

If the E-E-A-T of a page is low enough, people cannot or should not use the MC of the page. If a page on YMYL topics is highly inexpert, it should be considered Untrustworthy and rated Lowest.

 

Use the Lowest rating if the website and content creator have an extremely negative reputation, to the extent that many people would consider the webpage or website untrustworthy.

 

Here are some examples originally shown in Section 3.3.3. All pages on these websites should be rated Lowest because of the credible extremely negative or malicious reputation of these websites, making them untrustworthy.

 

Note: These website examples may be considered Harmful in some form as well. Sometimes reputation research exposes information that may not meet the criteria for considering a website harmful but does cause it to be untrustworthy.

 

Website Description
 

Site selling children’s jungle gym

Evidence of fraudulent behavior: There are many reviews on websites describing how users sent money and did not receive anything in return. There is also a news article about this business engaging in financial fraud.
Site selling products related to eyewear Evidence of criminal behavior: This website engaged in criminal behavior such as physically threatening users.
Organization serving the hospitalized veteran community Evidence of fraudulent behavior: There are many detailed negative articles on news sites and charity watchdog sites describing fraud and financial mishandling about this organization.

 

4.5.3 Deceptive Page Purpose and Deceptive MC Design

 

Pages or websites are Untrustworthy if they have a deceptive purpose. These pages or websites superficially appear to have one purpose, but in fact exist for a different reason.

 

All pages with a deceptive purpose and/or deceptive MC should be rated Lowest because pages that engage in deception are Untrustworthy.

 

The following list includes some common types of deceptive purpose pages. However, no list of deceptive page types will be complete—deceptive websites continue to evolve as people and search engines figure out how they are being tricked.

 

  • A webpage or website that impersonates a different site (e.g., copied logo or branding of an unaffiliated site, URL that mimics another site’s name, etc.)

● A non-satirical social network profile made by an impersonator

  • A webpage or website that looks like a news source or information page, but in fact has articles to manipulate users in order to benefit a person, business, government, or other organization politically, monetarily, or otherwise
  • A webpage claims to offer an independent review or share other information about a product, but is in fact created to make money for the owner of the website without attempting to help For example, the MC may contain intentionally misleading or inaccurate information created with the sole purpose of getting users to click on monetized links or buy the product
  • A website claims to be the personal website of a celebrity, but the website is actually created to make money for the owner of the website without the permission of the For example, the page may have false testimonials for a product and is created for the sole purpose of getting users to click on monetized links or buy the product

 

  • A webpage with a misleading title or a title that has nothing to do with the content on the People who come to the page expecting content related to the title will feel tricked or deceived
  • A webpage or website with deceptive website For example, the website may misrepresent who owns the site, what the website purpose really is, how the content was created, how to contact the site, etc.

 

Another form of deception is through the design of the page. Some pages are deliberately designed to manipulate users to take an action that will benefit the owner of the website rather than help the user.

 

Here are some common types of pages with deceptive MC design:

  • Pages that disguise Ads as MC. Actual MC may be minimal or created to encourage users to click on the Ads. For example, fake search pages (example) that have a list of links that look like a page of search results. If you click on a few of the links, you will see that the page is just a collection of Ads disguised as search engine A “search box” is present, but submitting a new query just gives you a different page of Ads disguised as search results.
  • Pages that disguise Ads as website navigation links. For example, fake directory pages (example) that look like a personally curated set of helpful links, possibly with unique In reality, the links are Ads or links to other similar pages on the site. Sometimes the descriptions of the links are unrelated to the page.

 

Take a good look at the page and use your judgment. If you believe the true purpose of the page is not what it appears to be, the page should be rated Lowest. If you believe the page was deliberately created with the primary purpose to manipulate users to click on Ads, monetized links, questionable download links, etc., rather than to help people, the page should be rated Lowest. If the page uses deception in any form even if not described here, the page should be rated Lowest.

 

4.5.4 Deliberately Obstructed or Obscured MC

 

Pages are untrustworthy if the MC is deliberately obstructed or obscured due to Ads, SC, interstitial pages, download links or other content that is beneficial to the website owner but not necessarily the website visitor. Attempts to manipulate or coerce users away from the MC is evidence of untrustworthiness.

 

Here are some examples of pages with deliberately obstructed or obscured MC that should be rated Lowest:

  • Ads that continue to cover the MC as the website visitor scrolls down the The Ads are virtually impossible to close without clicking on the Ad
  • Pop-ups that obscure the MC and cannot be closed without taking an action that benefits the website
  • An interstitial page that attempts to coerce a download or click that does not benefit the website visitor
  • Ads that push the MC down so far that many users would not notice the MC
  • MC in white-on-white text or MC presented so that it is difficult for a human being to read

 

Logins or paywalls on otherwise trustworthy sites should not be considered untrustworthy, deceptive, or coercive. Many high quality sites such as newspapers or magazines cannot exist without monetization through subscriptions and paywalls. Some types of MC should be login protected, such as pages with personal information online banking websites or private pages on social network websites.

 

MC may be inaccessible for non-deliberate or non-coercive reasons, such as content that doesn’t load or content that is unavailable in a country or region. These are not reasons for Lowest.

 

Use your judgment to assess whether the page is designed to manipulate or coerce users into taking actions that benefit the website. If you are unsure, look at other pages on the same website, conduct reputation research, etc.

 

Important: Remember that many websites need monetization to share content with users. The presence of Ads alone is not enough for Lowest.

 

4.5.5 Suspected Malicious Behavior

 

It may be difficult to prove that a page causes harm without experiencing harm yourself. For this reason, you may use the Lowest rating if you strongly suspect a page is malicious or harmful even without having proof. Any of the following should be considered untrustworthy:

 

  • Pages or websites that you strongly suspect are scams (see these links for more information about Internet scams: Avoid Scams 1, Avoid Scams 2, Internet Fraud).
  • Pages that ask for personal information without a legitimate reason (for example, pages that ask for name, birthdate, address, bank account, government ID number, etc.).
  • Pages that appear to “phish” for passwords to Facebook, Gmail, or other popular online See here for information about “phishing” fraud.
  • Pages with links that you strongly suspect are malware

 

Important: Do not continue to interact with the page if you observe these characteristics.

 

If you do click on a link and encounter a malware warning from your browser or antivirus software (example), please do not continue to that page. You can assume that the page is malicious for the purpose of rating and use Lowest.

 

Note that not all warnings your browser may display are related to malware (e.g., other types of browser warnings include certificate acceptance requests, content filtering warnings, etc.). If you are unsure or hesitant to continue to the page for any reason, you can release the task.

 

 

4.6 Spammy Webpages

 

Pages and websites should exist for the benefit of people who visit the website. There are many types of webpages that can benefit visitors, such as online shopping or banking services, videos offering entertainment, or personal pages sharing a perspective or experience. Some of these pages depend on advertising and monetization to maintain the website and create high quality content while still benefiting visitors.

 

However, some pages are created to benefit the website owner or other organizations and with little to no attention paid to the experience of the people who visit. When such pages use deceptive techniques to appear near the top of search results, it may disincentivize the creation of high quality content by crowding out pages created with effort, originality, talent, or skill that is helpful for visitors.

 

This section describes characteristics of spam or spam-like pages that should be rated Lowest. The Google Search Essentials Guideline is a good reference for non-website owners to learn more about different spam techniques. If you recognize any of these spam techniques on a page, please use the Lowest rating.

 

You do not need to develop spam recognition expertise or use special spam identification tools for PQ rating. Please review this section for guidance on what to look for even without having such tools or expertise.

 

4.6.1 Cannot Determine a Purpose, No MC, Little MC, or Lowest Quality MC

 

All pages should be created with sufficient MC quality so that the page can achieve its purpose. However, some pages are so lacking in MC that the purpose of the page itself is unclear or you may suspect the page is not actually created for people.

 

If any of the following are true, the page should be rated Lowest:

  • Despite your best efforts, the purpose of the page cannot truly be understood because the MC is gibberish or otherwise unusable for people
  • The page deliberately has no MC
  • The page is deliberately created with so little MC that it fails to achieve any purpose
  • The page is deliberately created with such low quality MC that it fails to achieve any purpose

 

4.6.2 Hacked, Defaced, or Spammed Pages

 

A hacked or defaced website is a site that has been modified without permission from the website owner(s).

 

Websites can become hacked, defaced, or filled with a large amount of distracting and unhelpful content from bad actors. Bad actors may add unrelated MC or SC or may modify existing MC on webpages to change the purpose of the page.

These pages should be rated Lowest because they fail to achieve their original purpose. Responsible website owners should regularly check their websites for suspicious behavior and take steps to protect users.

 

A common problem on forum pages or in the comments sections of pages is “spammed” comments: posts with unrelated comments that are not intended to help other people, but rather to advertise a product or create a link to a website.

Frequently these comments are posted by a “bot” rather than a real person. If a specific page on a website has many unrelated “spammed” comments, the page should be rated Lowest.

 

4.6.3 Auto-generated MC

 

Creating an abundance of content with little effort or originality with no editing or manual curation is often the defining attribute of spammy websites. One way to do this is to use “auto-generated” content.

 

It is possible to create many pages or even entire websites by designing a basic template from which hundreds or thousands of pages are created, sometimes using content from freely available sources (such as an RSS feed or API). These pages are created with very little effort and have little to no editing or manual curation. There is little value when pages repackage freely available content with little attention to no attention to the experience of people visiting the page (see here for more information on automatically generated content).

 

It is often easiest to recognize auto-generated content by clicking on multiple pages on a website and observing “templated” content. It may be difficult to recognize auto-generated content from a single page, so be sure to explore the website if you suspect the content is templated.

Pages and websites made up of auto-generated content with no editing or manual curation, and no original content or value added for users, should be rated Lowest.

 

4.6.4 Copied MC with No Added Value

 

Another way to create an abundance of content with little effort or originality is to copy content from another source. The word “copied” refers to the practice of “scraping” content, or copying content from other non-affiliated websites without adding any original content or value to users (see here for more information on copied or scraped content).

 

Any type of content may be copied: text, images, video, etc. Images may be slightly cropped or edited to avoid detection. People may alter videos as well, or even make a video of a screen playing video! Copied content with no value added is Lowest quality.

 

Sometimes content is “embedded” or included on the page from another source. There is nothing wrong with embedding content, but the Lowest rating applies if there is no significant original content or value added on the page.

 

Likewise, social media posts may be reposted by an unrelated account. There is nothing wrong with reposting content, but the Lowest rating applies if there is no value added in the form of additional content, context, or discussion.

 

Pages created solely with copied, embedded, or reposted content with little to no editing or manual curation are lacking in effort and originality. As with auto-generated content, these techniques can be used to create many pages or even a whole website. For this reason, it is often easiest to recognize pages created solely with copied, embedded, or reposted content by exploring many pages on the site.

 

The Lowest rating is appropriate if all or almost all of the MC on the page (including text, images or videos) is copied, embedded, or reposted with little or no effort, originality, talent, skill, manual curation, or added value for users. Such pages should be rated Lowest, even if the page assigns credit for the content to another source.

 

 

All of the following are considered copied content:

  • Content copied, reposted, or embedded exactly from an identifiable source. Sometimes an entire page is copied, and sometimes just parts of the page are Sometimes multiple pages are copied and then pasted together into a single page. Content that has been copied, reposted, or embedded exactly is usually the easiest type of copied content to identify.
  • Content that is copied, but changed slightly from the original. This type of copying makes it difficult to find the exact matching original source. Sometimes just a few words are changed, or whole sentences are changed, or a “find and replace” modification is made, where one word is replaced with another throughout the text. Images may be cropped or videos may be segmented into shorter These types of changes are deliberately done to make it difficult to find the original source of the content. We call this kind of content “copied with minimal alteration.”
  • Content copied from a changing source, such as a search results page or news feed. You often won’t be able to find an exact matching original source if it is a copy of “dynamic” content (content that changes frequently). However, we will still consider this to be copied content.

 

Important: Licensed or syndicated content should not be considered as “copied” (see here for more on web syndication). Examples of syndicated content in the U.S. include news articles by AP or Reuters.

 

4.6.5 How to Determine if Content is Copied

 

How do you determine whether all or most of the MC is copied? How do you identify the original source of the content? These things can be difficult to determine, but the following steps may help.

  1. Copy a sentence or phrase in the It may be necessary to try a few sentences or phrases from the page just to be sure. When deciding what sentence or phrase to copy, try to find a sentence or series of several words without punctuation, unusual characters, or suspicious words that may have replaced the original text.

 

  1. Search on Google by pasting the sentence or phrase (surrounded by quotation marks to search for an exact match) inside the Google search box. You may also try without quotation marks to search for more general

 

 

 

Here are some sentences and phrases from this page about “The Wizard of Oz” film and how to search for them.

 

Sentence or Phrase From a Sentence Query to Find the Sentence or Phrase
 

 

A sentence on the page:

 

All are convinced by Dorothy that the Wizard can help them too

 

Try the query both with and without quotation marks around the sentence:

[ “All are convinced by Dorothy that the Wizard can help them too” ]

[ All are convinced by Dorothy that the Wizard can help them too ]

 

A phrase on the page:

 

Dorothy uses the Golden Cap to summon the Winged Monkeys

Try the query both with and without quotation marks around the sentence:

[ “Dorothy uses the Golden Cap to summon the Winged Monkeys” ]

[ Dorothy uses the Golden Cap to summon the Winged Monkeys ]

 

A different phrase on the page:

 

revealing an old man who had journeyed to Oz from Omaha long ago in a hot air balloon

Try the query both with and without quotation marks around the sentence:

[ “revealing an old man who had journeyed to Oz from Omaha long ago in a hot air balloon” ]

[revealing an old man who had journeyed to Oz from Omaha long ago in a hot air balloon ]

 

  1. Compare the pages you find that match the sentence or phrase. Is most of their MC the same? If so, does one clearly come from a highly authoritative source that is known for original content creation (newspaper, magazine, medical foundation, etc.)? Does one source seem to reasonably be the original? Does one source appear to have the earliest publication date, verified by sources like the Wayback Machine?

 

Use your best judgment. Sometimes it is clear that the content is copied from somewhere, but you cannot tell what the original source is. Other times the content found on the original source has changed enough that searches for sentences or phrases may no longer match the original source. For example, Wikipedia articles can change dramatically over time. Text copied from old copies may not match the current content. If you strongly suspect the page you are evaluating is not the original source, consider it likely to be copied.

 

Based on this older version of a Wikipedia article about “The Wizard of Oz,” which can be found using the Internet Archive Wayback Machine, we can confirm that the text in the table has been copied. Please note that searching for the above sentence and phrases will not lead you to a current Wikipedia article about “The Wizard of Oz,” which demonstrates how confirming that the MC of a page contains copied content can sometimes be difficult.

 

Important: The Lowest rating is appropriate if all or almost all of the MC on the page is copied with little or no effort, manual curation, or added value for users. Such pages should be rated Lowest, even if the page assigns credit for the content to another source.

 

4.7 Examples of Lowest Quality Pages

 

Webpage/Content Lowest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Untrustworthy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Untrustworthy

 

● Multiple, obvious and odd factual inaccuracies

● Lowest E-E-A-T

This page appears to be an informational article about the animal the praying mantis.

 

Factual inaccuracies and odd statements exist in the section titled “Praying Mantises Are Not Poisonous”: “In contrast to praying mollies, which are mostly solitary creatures that avoid human interaction, praying mollusks are more closely related to God. There are no poisonous snakes, and there are no venomous turtles.”

 

Odd, factually inaccurate and/or misleading statements:

 

● The section suddenly refers to praying mantises as “praying mollies”

– a name does that isn’t supported through a quick web search

● Praying mollusks do not exist – there is no such animal

● Statements about animals and their relation to God are not what one would expect on an informational page like this

● Poisonous snakes exist

 

It is unlikely a human author would make these odd statements and obvious mistakes. It’s likely this content was auto-generated with no human editing.

 

No matter how this content was created, the odd statements and factual inaccuracies make this article untrustworthy and therefore Lowest E-E-A-T and Lowest quality.

 

Webpage/Content Lowest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Lowest E-E-A-T and Deceptive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deceptive and Untrustworthy

 

● This page has a deceptive purpose: the page claims to be an informational resource for parents, but the website terms of service state that it is published for AI enthusiasts and is not intended for the general public.

● The website terms of use states that “some articles” are generated by artificial intelligence and may have errors or be out of date; there is no indication to which pages this statement applies. The information in this article is not trustworthy and is Lowest E-E-A-T

The page appears to be an informational article about switching babies from breast milk to whole milk.

 

The bottom of the page states “Our blog is dedicated to all things related to kids and parenting – including product reviews, news, recipes, and more. We strive to provide parents with the information they need in order to make informed decisions for their families.”

 

However, if you read the terms of service page, you’ll find a very different description of pages on the website.

 

The terms of use page states “Some articles on this website might have been partially generated by an artificial intelligence language model and published for experimental and research purposes. The articles on this website are only to be used as proof of concept by AI enthusiasts and not intended for general public. We do not assume any responsibility or liability for the use or interpretation of this content for any other purpose than it was intended.

While we strive for accuracy and quality, please note that the information provided may not be entirely error-free or up-to-date. We recommend independently verifying the content and consulting with professionals for specific advice or information.”

 

Given the statements above, the articles on this website should be considered untrustworthy and Lowest E-E-A-T.

 

Lowest: Superiority of Specified Group 1

 

This is the homepage of Stormfront, a white supremacist website. The site is known for propagating white nationalism, antisemitism, Holocaust denial, white supremacy, and Islamophobia.

 

 

 

 

Harmful to Specified Groups

 

● Promotes, condones, or incites hatred against a Specified Group of people

● Lowest website reputation

 

 

Inciting hatred towards Specified Groups significantly harms members of those groups and society as whole. This page is on a YMYL topic.

 

This website has an extremely negative reputation for promoting white supremacy, antisemitism, Holocaust denial, etc.

 

Webpage/Content Lowest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

Lowest: Superiority of Specified Group 2

 

This page describes a

non-scientifically backed theory of superiority of a Specified Group.

 

 

 

Harmful to Specified Groups, Harmfully Misleading Information

 

● Promotes, condones, or incites hatred against a Specified Group of people

● Contains unsubstantiated theories/claims not grounded in any reasonable facts or evidence

 

 

Unsubstantiated claims about a Specified Group significantly harms members of that group and society as a whole. This page is on a YMYL topic.

 

The purpose of the page is to promote the view of superiority of a group of people.

 

This page makes unsubstantiated claims about the role of melanin in the human body.

 

 

 

Lowest: Non-medical drug use advice

 

This post encourages mixing an anti-anxiety drug with a recreational drug.

 

 

 

Harmful to Self or Other Individuals

 

● Encourages, depicts, incites, or directly causes physical, mental, emotional, or financial harm to self or others

 

 

Potentially harmful use of drugs could significantly impact a person’s health. This is a YMYL topic.

 

This post and other content on the page encourages dangerous behavior that could cause harm.

 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Eating disorder encouragement

 

This page has posts that encourage people to lose weight in unhealthy ways.

 

 

 

 

Harmful to Self or Other Individuals, Harmfully Misleading Information

 

● Encourages, depicts, incites, or directly causes physical, mental, emotional, or financial harm to self or others

● Contains information that contradicts well-established expert consensus

 

 

Eating disorders and decisions to seek medical treatment significantly impact a person’s health. This is a YMYL topic.

 

This post encourages harmful behavior.

 

“Proana” or pro-anorexia is a movement to view anorexia as a lifestyle choice, not a disease. Proana and similar “thinspiration” pages contradict well-established expert consensus that anorexia is a life-threatening eating disorder.

Lowest: Personal information collection scam

 

Superficially, this looks like a payment page on a merchant site.

 

However, the form asks for highly sensitive personal information such as social security number, drivers license number, bank account numbers, and ATM PIN.

 

 

Harmful to Self or Other Individuals, Untrustworthy

 

● Encourages, depicts, incites, or directly causes physical, mental, emotional, or financial harm to self or others

● Characteristics of scams, malicious downloads, or other harmful behavior

 

 

Sharing highly sensitive personal information could significantly impact a person’s financial security. This page is on a YMYL topic.

 

While this looks like a merchant site, the true purpose of this page is to collect information that could be used to commit identity theft or remove money from someone’s bank account.

 

Webpage/Content Lowest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Poor financial advice and possible scam

 

This is an article suggesting clicking on a link to avoid paying debt.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Untrustworthy

 

● Inadequate information about the website or content creator for the purpose of the page

● Lowest E-E-A-T

● Deceptive page design

● Characteristics of scams, malicious downloads, or other harmful behavior

 

 

Debt management significantly impacts a person’s financial security. This is a YMYL topic.

 

This page has multiple Lowest quality characteristics. From the MC, it is evident that the content creator lacks financial expertise (inconsistent with well-established expert consensus on what to do for debt relief).

 

Furthermore, the page appears to be designed to manipulate people into clicking one of several prominent links rather than helping people by providing sound financial advice.

The promise of debt relief is a common form of manipulation and scam technique.

 

 

Lowest: Miley Cyrus is dead “news article” on a deceptive website

 

This is a factually inaccurate article on a website called “Now 8 News”. It falsely claims Miley Cyrus is dead.

 

 

 

Harmfully Misleading Information, Untrustworthy

 

● Contains clearly inaccurate information that can be refuted by straightforward and widely accepted facts

● Deceptive page design

 

 

This website is designed to look like a news site and yet has deliberate factually inaccurate information. There is no information on who is responsible for this content. There is no date for the news article or date of death, which would be a key part of any standard reporting. This page was designed to misinform or deceive.

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Crystals heal cancer potential scam

 

This article explains how crystals can be used to help cure cancers. It has a prominent “Shop Crystals” link at the top.

 

 

Harmfully Misleading Information, Untrustworthy

 

● Contains unsubstantiated theories/claims not grounded in any reasonable facts or evidence

● Contains information that contradicts well-established expert consensus

● Characteristics of scams, malicious downloads, or other harmful behavior

 

 

Claims about cancer cures could significantly impact people’s decisions to seek medical treatment. This page is on a YMYL topic.

 

The claims made about the healing power of crystals contradict well-established expert scientific and medical consensus.

 

Selling “cures” for diseases such as cancer is a commonly used scam technique.

 

Webpage/Content Lowest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

Lowest: Flat earth

 

This is a homepage of The Flat Earth Society, a group of people dedicated to spreading the belief that the earth is flat.

 

 

Harmfully Misleading Information

 

● Contains unsubstantiated theories/claims not grounded in any reasonable facts or evidence

● Contains clearly inaccurate information that can be refuted by straightforward and widely accepted facts

● Contains information that contradicts well-established expert consensus

 

 

Claims contradicting well-established scientific consensus about the shape of the earth undermine trust in scientific institutions such as NOAA, the agency responsible for issuing alerts during dangerous weather events. This is a YMYL topic.

 

The purpose of this website is promoting misleading information. It is harmful to people and society as it undermines trust in public institutions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Dry socket medical info

 

This YMYL medical site has literally no information about who is responsible for the content or the website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Untrustworthy

 

● Inadequate information about the website or content creator for the purpose of the page

 

 

Medical information about this dental condition could significantly impact how people seek dental treatment. This page is on a YMYL topic.

 

There is no information about who created this website, no contact information, and no information about the author.

 

Medical pages require a high level of user trust. Because there is no information about who owns this website and who created this content, this is considered an untrustworthy website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Merchant with little contact info, untrustworthy characteristics

 

This looks like a product listing page on a merchant website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Untrustworthy

 

● Inadequate information about the website or content creator for the purpose of the page

● Characteristics of scams, malicious downloads, or other harmful behavior

 

 

Inaccurate information about shipping and returns, deceptive use of logos and no information about who is responsible make this shopping site appear potentially fraudulent and untrustworthy.

 

This page is selling Nike Air Jordan shoes. However, there is inadequate contact information on the contact us page for a merchant site.

 

In addition, the Shipping and Returns page has the name of another company that seems to be unrelated. There are also official looking logos at the bottom of the homepage, including the Better Business Bureau logo and Google Checkout logo, that don’t appear to be affiliated with the website.

 

Webpage/Content Lowest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Stomach flu lowest EAT article

 

This poorly written article describes how to cure the stomach flu.

 

 

 

 

Harmfully Misleading Information, Untrustworthy

 

● Contains information that contradicts well-established expert consensus

● Inadequate information about the website or content creator for the purpose of the page

● Lowest E-E-A-T

 

 

Many patient hospitalizations and deaths occur due to the flu each year. This topic could significantly impact a person’s health. This is a YMYL topic.

 

The writing is poor and the information is not consistent with standard medical guidance. It is clear from the content the author does not have medical expertise.

 

This page should not be trusted as a medical resource.

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Pimple popping lowest EAT article

 

This very poorly written article describes popping pimples.

 

 

 

 

Untrustworthy

 

● Inadequate information about the website or content creator for the purpose of the page

● Lowest E-E-A-T

 

 

The writing is extremely poor and there is virtually no information in this article.

 

For example, the opening sentence is “Popping pimples could be or could be not the new trend of getting rid of them.”

 

It is clear from the content that the author does not have skin care expertise.

 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Malicious merchant site

 

This website appears to be an eyeglasses merchant site.

 

 

Harmful to Self or Other Individuals, Untrustworthy

 

● Encourages, depicts, incites, or directly causes physical, mental, emotional, or financial harm to self or others

● Lowest E-E-A-T

● Characteristics of scams, malicious downloads, or other harmful behavior

 

 

This website swindled people and physically threatened people who complained. These articles on Wikipedia and the New York Times describe the deceptive techniques used by this website and provide other negative information about the website and its owner.

 

The reputation of this website is lowest based on reports of malicious behavior.

 

 

 

Lowest: Chicken recipes no MC

 

This looks like a list of chicken recipes, but is actually a list of links that are ads.

 

 

Untrustworthy, Spammy

 

● No MC

● Deceptive page design

● Content created with little to no effort, talent, skill, originality, manual curation, or added value for users

 

 

MC should be created to benefit people who come to the website. Pages without MC should be considered spammy as they crowd out and disincentivize the creation of pages with high quality MC.

 

Pages with Ads that are designed to look like MC should be considered untrustworthy.

 

Webpage/Content Lowest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Mesothelioma deceptive directory

 

This page looks like a listing of resources about Mesothelioma, a form of lung cancer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Untrustworthy, Spammy

 

● No MC

● Deceptive page design

● Content created with little to no effort, talent, skill, originality, manual curation, or added value for users

 

 

Information about cancer could significantly impact how people make decisions related to medical treatment. This page is on a YMYL topic.

 

This page is designed to look like a directory page or a list of helpful resources, but every link is an Ad. There is no MC on this page.

 

Pages without MC should be considered spammy as they crowd out and disincentivize the creation of pages with high quality MC.

 

Pages that disguise Ads as directory listings or other MC should be considered untrustworthy.

 

 

Lowest: Ads deliberately obscure MC

 

When you first visit the page, it appears that there is no MC, only Ads. If you scroll down, you will eventually find the MC at the bottom.

 

 

 

 

Untrustworthy

 

● Deliberately obstructed or obscured MC

 

 

This page requires scrolling past so many Ads to get to the MC that many people may stop scrolling and leave the page before reaching the MC.

 

Deliberately obscured MC to benefit the website with no help for people visiting the page should be considered untrustworthy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Deceptive and untrustworthy fake survey page

 

This page appears to be a survey with the opportunity to win an Apple MacBook Air, an iPhone 5c, or a Galaxy S4.

 

 

 

 

Untrustworthy, Spammy

 

● Inadequate information about the website or content creator for the purpose of the page

● Deceptive page design

● Characteristics of scams, malicious downloads, or other harmful behavior

● Content created with little to no effort, talent, skill, originality, manual curation, or added value for users

 

 

This page contains a fake survey, which appears to promise users the opportunity to win an Apple MacBook Air, an iPhone 5c, or a Galaxy S4.

 

However, there is no information about who is responsible for the survey, even though upon clicking, the survey asks for highly personal information such as bank account numbers. The message at the top of the page, “Thank You from Goggle.com” and survey content could mislead users to think that the survey is affiliated with Google.

 

This page is deceptive and should be considered untrustworthy.

 

Webpage/Content Lowest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

Lowest: Lowest MC free credit report

 

The title of the page suggests that it may provide a credit report from the government “freecreditreport gov”.

 

However, the page has gibberish MC and spammy looking features, such as ads or links surrounding the meaningless text.

 

Untrustworthy, Spammy

 

● Extremely misleading title

● Inadequate information about the website or content creator for the purpose of the page

● Deceptive page design

● Characteristics of scams, malicious downloads, or other harmful behavior

● Cannot determine any purpose, e.g., gibberish MC

● Content created with little to no effort, talent, skill, originality, manual curation, or added value for users

 

 

Credit reports could significantly impact one’s financial security. This is a YMYL topic.

 

The MC is gibberish. There is no beneficial purpose of gibberish MC. The title of the page is misleading, given the MC.

 

This page also has deceptive features in the supplementary content, such as a friend request, a prize alert, and a download button. It is highly likely that these are ads or malicious download links.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Buy Xanax

 

This is a page on the website for the U.S. Green Building Council. However, this page has the words “Buy Xanax” over and over again, along with related words about buying Xanax and a URL link.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Untrustworthy, Spammy

 

● Characteristics of scams, malicious downloads, or other harmful behavior

● Content created with little to no effort, talent, skill, originality, manual curation, or added value for users

 

 

Prescription drugs could significantly impact a person’s health. This is a YMYL topic.

 

This specific page has been created or modified on this organization’s website in hopes that people will click on the link to buy the prescription drug Xanax.

 

This is a spam technique. Spammers hope that the page will rank well in search results because the website is otherwise high quality. The words “buy xanax” are used repeatedly in hopes that the page will show up for the search “buy xanax”.

 

Attempting to spam search engines and trick people into clicking on links is highly untrustworthy behavior.

 

Webpage/Content Lowest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Auto-generated car engine code

 

This page is full of supplementary content, links, and large ads.

 

The MC at the top gives information about a specific error code P2570 and a second block of main content in the middle shows more information about P2570.

 

The MC is broken up by large ads and it is difficult to understand due to the poor content quality.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Untrustworthy, Spammy

 

● Inadequate information about the website or content creator for the purpose of the page

● Content created with little to no effort, talent, skill, originality, manual curation, or added value for users

 

 

This page has low quality MC and spammy attributes.

 

The page repeats the error code “P2570” beyond what is helpful for users- a technique known as irrelevant keywords.

 

The small amount of MC is not original to the website. Lists of error codes are available either by purchase or by scraping.

 

An important fact is missing at the top “When you check engine light came on code P2570 the reason should be .” The reason is left out – this should be the most important content on the page!

 

Looking at other pages on the website, it is clear that each page is created automatically by filling in a template from a list of error code information. There appears to be little to no manual editing or checking to make sure the error code content is correctly pulled in, as evident by the missing reason on this page.

 

As with many spammy websites, there is no information about who is responsible for this website and no way to report problems with the page.

 

Webpage/Content Lowest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
The MC on this page is copied with little or no time, effort, expertise, manual curation, or added value for users.
 

 

 

 

Lowest: Auto-generated bulldog wrinkle wipes

 

This page claims to list the best bulldog wrinkle wipes and uses affiliate links.

 

 

Untrustworthy, Spammy

 

● Inadequate information about the website or content creator for the purpose of the page

● Deceptive page design

● Content created with little to no effort, talent, skill, originality, manual curation, or added value for users

Looking at the content at the bottom of the page and exploring other pages on the website, it is clear that each page is created automatically using content from Amazon and substituting different product names into a generic template. There appears to be little to no manual editing or curation on this page.

 

The true purpose of this page is to bring users seeking information about products to this website in hopes that they will click and order products by clicking on Amazon affiliate links. This website does not have a beneficial purpose for users but rather was created to benefit the creator of the website. Though the website discloses that they use affiliate links, the site offers no added value for users.

As with many deceptive websites, there is no information about who is responsible for this website.
Information about prescription drugs could significantly impact a person’s health. This page is on a YMYL topic.
 

 

Untrustworthy, Spammy

All MC on this page is copied with little or no time, effort, expertise, manual curation, or added value for users. Here is the original source.
Lowest: Viagra copied content

 

This looks like an information website for the drug Viagra.

● Inadequate information about the website or content creator for the purpose of the page

● Deceptive page design

● Content created with little to no effort, talent, skill, originality, manual curation, or added value for users

 

Exploration of the pages on this website are similarly created with little expertise or value added for users.

 

The true purpose of this page is to bring users seeking information about Viagra to this website in hopes that they will click on the “order now” link. The “order now” link goes to another website and is likely monetized.

Therefore, this website does not have a beneficial purpose for users but rather was created to benefit another website.

As with many deceptive websites, there is no information about who is responsible for this website.

 

5.0 Low Quality Pages

Low quality pages do not achieve their purpose well because they are lacking in an important dimension or have a problematic aspect. Low quality pages do not meet the standards for Lowest but may have similar though milder undesirable characteristics.

 

To identify Low quality pages, start by considering the following:

 

Initial Consideration Low Quality Pages
The purpose of the page Low quality pages have a beneficial or non-harmful purpose.
The potential for the page to cause harm as described in these guidelines Low quality pages have either no potential to cause harm, or have some mild potential for harm but do not meet the standards for Lowest as described in Section 4.0.
The topic of the page, the type of website, and the extent to which YMYL standards apply A page on any topic or any type of website may qualify for Low.

 

Give special scrutiny to pages or websites needing a high level of trust, such as online stores, medical websites, or news coverage of major civic issues.

 

Next, assess the page to determine if any of the criteria for Low apply:

 

Low Page Quality Assessment Any one of the following is justification for Low
Quality of the MC MC is created without adequate effort, originality, talent, or skill necessary to achieve the purpose of the page in a satisfying way.
The title of the page The page title is slightly misleading, shocking, or exaggerated.
The role of Ads and SC on the page The Ads or SC significantly distract from or interrupt the use of the MC as described in Section 5.3.
Information provided by the website and content creator Unsatisfying amount of website information or information about the content creator for the purpose of the page.

 

Important: For personal content shared on social media platforms or forums, an alias or username is adequate.

Reputation of the website and content creator A mildly negative reputation of the website or content creator.
Trustworthiness of the page: E-E-A-T Inadequate level of E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page.

 

Important: Low quality pages can occur on any type of website, including academic websites, nonprofit websites, government websites, or any other generally helpful type of website. Low quality pages may be about any topic. Pages on YMYL topics need more scrutiny for signs of Low quality related to the MC and website/content creator because the page could impact a person’s health, financial stability, or safety, or the welfare or well-being of society. However, for any type of page, a single Low quality attribute is enough to use the Low quality rating.

 

5.1 Lacking E-E-A-T

 

Low quality pages often lack an appropriate level of E-E-A-T for the topic or purpose of the page. Here are some examples:

 

  • The content creator lacks adequate experience, g. a restaurant review written by someone who has never eaten at the restaurant
  • The content creator lacks adequate expertise, g. an article about how to skydive written by someone with no expertise in the subject
  • The website or content creator is not an authoritative or trustworthy source for the topic of the page, g. tax form downloads provided on a cooking website.
  • The page or website is not trustworthy for its purpose, g. a shopping page with minimal customer service information

 

Important: The Low rating should be used if the page lacks appropriate E-E-A-T for its purpose. No other considerations such as positive reputation or the type of website can overcome a lack of E-E-A-T for the topic or purpose of the page.

 

 

5.2 Low Quality Main Content

 

MC is Low quality if it is created without adequate effort, originality, talent, or skill necessary to achieve the purpose of the page in a satisfying way. Mild inaccuracies on informational pages are evidence of Low quality. However, if the page has harmful inaccuracies or so many inaccuracies that it feels untrustworthy, the Lowest rating is justified.

There are many possible ways for MC to be Low quality, and Low effort is important to recognize in all forms. While you may not have experience creating MC on webpages, think about your experience with something similar:

writing reports for school. Here are some common shortcuts that students often take to save effort when writing a report:

 

  • Producing content quickly with little attention to important aspects such as clarity or
  • Saving time by summarizing or paraphrasing from other readily available
  • Filling a report with large pictures or other distracting content rather than clear, helpful information on the
  • Using images from other sources (magazines, stock image websites, ) to avoid having to create pictures or diagrams to support the material in the report.
  • Using commonly known facts that require little research, for example: “Argentina is a People live in Argentina. Argentina has borders.”
  • Using “filler” content, for example: “Pandas eat Pandas eat a lot of bamboo. Bamboo is the best food for a Panda bear.”

 

Of course, webpages are more diverse than school reports, but you will recognize some of these same techniques on pages you encounter. Some Low quality content is created with little effort in order to have content to support monetization rather than creating original or effortful content to help users. “Filler” content may also be added, especially at the top of the page, forcing users to scroll down to reach the MC.

 

Here are some examples of pages with Low quality MC:

 

Low Quality MC Examples Why the MC is considered Low quality
A crafting tutorial page with instructions on how to make a basic craft and lots of unhelpful “filler” at the top, such as commonly known facts about the supplies needed or other non-crafting information. Lacks adequate effort to clearly present the instructions to people hoping to make the craft.
A list of the best vacuum cleaners with product images and reviews that are paraphrased or summarized from other sources, with minimal signs of effort or original content added by the content creator. Lacks adequate effort and first-hand experience from the content creator.
A slide show of the top 10 world destinations using other people’s pictures and existing top 10 lists. Lacks effort and originality.
A page titled “How many centimeters are in a meter?” with a large amount of off-topic and unhelpful content such that the very small amount of helpful information is hard to find. Lacks effort, has excessive filler, lacks depth, and has only commonly known facts.
A list of the tallest mountains in the world that is missing Mount Everest. Lacks accuracy and effort.

 

The title of the page is also considered part of the MC. Titles are important because they represent the page in search results and help users decide what to click on. A misleading title can lead to a poor search experience. Exaggerated or shocking titles are evidence of Low quality because of the poor user experience that results when users see the actual MC after reaching the page.

 

Here are some examples of pages with Low quality titles:

 

Low Quality Title Examples Why the Title is considered Low quality
A page titled “Pink Elephant: Part 2 coming soon!”, but includes only speculation and rumor about a potential movie sequel that may or may not be produced. Slightly misleading title would give people the impression that the movie sequel has a confirmed release date, and that the page would provide accurate information about it.
A page titled “Is the World about to End? Mysterious Sightings of Sea Serpents Prompt Panic!”, for an article about the remains of a dead fish on a beach. Exaggerated and shocking title is a mismatch with the content of the article.
A page titled “Eat the Healthiest Foods in the WORLD to extend your life!!!!” for a list of tips on how to add more fruits and vegetables to meals. Overly exaggerated title suggests that the page would offer something more than the basic nutrition advice it provides.

 

The level of talent or skill required for artistic expression by ordinary people on social media or other websites that allow content sharing should be viewed leniently. In many cases, people post activities to share with friends, such as a video documenting a first attempt at a new hobby. These types of pages should not be considered Low on the basis of talent or skill because the primary purpose is sharing content. Use the Low rating only if the lack of talent or skill prevents the page from achieving its purpose well.

 

Important: Low quality MC does not meet the standard for Lowest and is not harmful, but it is unsatisfying for the purpose of the page or causes the page to fail to achieve its purpose well.

 

5.3 Distracting Ads/SC

 

We expect Ads and SC to be visible. However, some Ads, SC, or interstitial pages (i.e., pages displayed before or after the content you are expecting) make it difficult to use the MC. Pages with Ads, SC, or other features that significantly distract from or interrupt the use of the MC should be given a Low rating.

 

A single pop-over Ad or interstitial page with a clear and easy-to-use close button is not terribly distracting, even though it may annoy some people. However, difficult-to-close Ads that follow page scrolls, or interstitial pages that require an app download, can be truly distracting and make the MC difficult to use. You can see examples of interstitial pages here.

 

The content of the Ads, SC, or other features may be distracting as well: sexually suggestive images such as here, grotesque images such as here, and sexually suggestive Ads on otherwise non-sexual pages are very distracting.

 

Finally, Ads and SC can be distracting if the titles or images of the Ads or SC are shocking or disturbing. Here is an example of a page with shocking and exaggerated titles, images, and text in the Ads and SC.

 

Important: The Low rating should be used if the page has Ads, SC, or other features that significantly distract from or interrupt the use of the MC.

 

 

5.4 Mildly Negative Reputation of the Website or Content Creator

 

The Low rating should be used if the website or the content creator has a mildly negative reputation.

 

If the MC was created by a content creator who is using the website to host it, research the reputation of the content creator. Expect to find reputation information on well-known journalists, authors, social media influencers, bloggers and vloggers, professionals such as lawyers and doctors, etc. Pay attention when there is evidence of mildly negative—though not malicious or financially fraudulent—reputation. However, a lack of reputation information for ordinary people and lesser-known content creators is expected and is not a sign of Low quality.

 

Exercise care when researching the reputation of businesses. Try to find enough reviews to understand a range of customer opinions and experiences, and read the details of negative reviews and low ratings before inferring that the business overall has a negative reputation. A few negative customer service reviews are typical for businesses such as stores or restaurants.

 

 

5.5 Unsatisfying Amount of Information about the Website or Content Creator

 

Expect to find some form of website information for many or most websites. We expect clear information about who (e.g., what individual, company, business, foundation, etc.) created the MC, unless there is good reason for anonymity. A

long-standing Internet alias or username can identify the content creator. For personal websites or forum discussions on non-YMYL topics, an email address or social media link alone may be sufficient. Many people are reasonably hesitant to share personally identifiable information online!

 

Stores and websites that process financial transactions require a high level of user trust. If a store or financial transaction website has just an email address and physical address, it may be difficult to get help if there are issues with the transaction. Likewise, many other types of websites on clear YMYL topics also require a high level of user trust.

 

Important: Pages that offer payment functionality or process other types of financial transactions should receive a Low rating if there is an unsatisfying amount of customer service information or contact information. Pages on YMYL topics and other pages that require a high level of user trust should receive a Low rating if there is an unsatisfying amount of information about who is responsible for the website or who created the content. For forums, social media pages, and other websites where people commonly exchange opinions, a username is an acceptable identifier.

 

5.6 Examples of Low Quality Pages

 

Type of Webpage/Content Low Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

Low: News 1

 

Article about nuclear power

 

 

 

 

 

● Unsatisfying MC for the purpose of the page: does not achieve the purpose well

● MC lacks accuracy or does not align with well-established expert consensus

● Low E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Information about energy sources and nuclear power could significantly impact global industries and society. This is a YMYL topic.

 

The writing of this article is unprofessional, including many grammar and punctuation errors. The MC also appears to have been paraphrased from a science article found on a different source, but with factual inaccuracies introduced throughout. The combination of low quality MC and lack of E-A-T justify the Lowest+ to Low rating.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low: News 2

 

Article titled “Getting Rid Of Toxins After The Holiday Season”

 

 

 

 

● Unsatisfying MC for the purpose of the page: does not achieve the purpose well

● MC lacks accuracy or does not align with well-established expert consensus

● Slightly misleading, shocking, or exaggerated title

● Low E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

The title of the article is misleading and does not reflect the actual content of the page. The MC does not explain how to get rid of toxins or what the word “toxins” in the headline refers to.

 

The content also has many problems: the writing quality is poor, and the article includes meaningless statements such as “water therapy is one of the easiest ways of beauty regimen since it will give enough moisture on the skin”. The article fails to cite sources, and there is no evidence of E-A-T.

 

 

 

 

Low: Informational

 

40th birthday party food ideas

 

 

 

● Unsatisfying MC for the purpose of the page: does not achieve the purpose well

● Ads or SC significantly distract from or interrupt the use of MC

● Low E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This page and website have many characteristics of Low quality pages. Close observation shows MC that contains mostly commonly known information and poor quality writing, demonstrating a lack of effort. The MC is broken up by large Ads that significantly disrupt the user experience.

 

 

 

 

Low: Article 1

 

Article with tips for dressing for the office

 

 

 

 

● Unsatisfying MC for the purpose of the page: does not achieve the purpose well

● Low E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This informational article has multiple Low quality characteristics leading to a Low or Lowest+ rating. There is a large amount of “filler” or meaningless content and a complete lack of effort in editing. In addition, the MC contains only commonly known information with no expertise or first-hand experience shared by the content creator.

 

Type of Webpage/Content Low Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

Low: Article 2

 

Using ginger for your health

 

 

 

 

● Unsatisfying MC for the purpose of the page: does not achieve the purpose well

● MC lacks accuracy or does not align with well-established expert consensus

● Low E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This informational article has multiple Low quality characteristics leading to a Low or Lowest+ rating. There is garbled or meaningless content, a complete lack of effort in editing, and unrelated links in the middle of the page. Additionally, the article is on a health topic, and there are no signs that the content creator has relevant expertise or links to support the medical claims made in the article.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low: Article 3

 

How to adopt children from Iraq

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Unsatisfying MC for the purpose of the page: does not achieve the purpose well

● Low E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Adopting a child significantly impacts the health and well-being of families. This is a YMYL topic.

 

However, the steps listed here are merely commonly-known information that would be of little benefit to someone interested in adopting a child from Iraq. For example, step 1 says “Choose an adoption agency” and suggests looking in a phone book. This demonstrates a lack of effort in the creation of MC.

 

There is almost no information specific to Iraq. There is no evidence of expertise on adoption from the description about the author.

 

Note that some Ads have the same format as links to other articles on this website, potentially making it a bit harder for users to visually distinguish these Ads from the MC and SC.

 

 

 

 

 

Low: Financial

 

Page with advice on picking a quality stock for investment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Low E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Advice on stock investment could significantly impact a person’s financial decisions and security. This is a YMYL topic.

 

The MC is superficial and includes mostly commonly known information for this topic, e.g. “look at key statistics” or “find companies with rising revenue”. There is no evidence that the author has financial expertise. Because this article gives advice on a YMYL financial topic, lacking expertise is a reason for a Low rating.

 

Type of Webpage/Content Low Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

Low: Medical

 

Page with information about how long the flu lasts

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Low E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Many patient hospitalizations and deaths occur due to the flu each year. This topic could significantly impact a person’s health. This is a YMYL topic.

 

There is no evidence that the author has medical expertise. Because this article gives advice on a YMYL medical topic, lacking expertise is a reason for a Low rating.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low: Recipe 1 Apple pie recipe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Unsatisfying MC for the purpose of the page: does not achieve the purpose well

 

 

This page and website have many characteristics of Low quality pages. The MC is low quality and lacks important information. For example, it gives no indication of how to make a crust and doesn’t list premade crust as an ingredient. It would be very difficult to actually make an apple pie using this recipe.

 

This page is lacking the kind of helpful content we expect in recipe pages, such as user reviews or comments. Without such information, it’s hard to tell if the recipe is any good. The small pink text at the top is not helpful for users.

 

 

 

 

Low: Recipe 2

 

Gluten-free New York cheesecake recipe

 

 

 

 

 

● Ads or SC significantly distract from or interrupt the use of MC

 

 

This is an example of distracting and disruptive Ads/SC: there are large Ads in the main column pushing down the MC as well as highly distracting content on the right that are labeled “Top Posts & Pages.” It is unclear whether these are SC or Ads. Additionally, the images in the Ads/SC are shocking, racy, and completely unrelated to the MC, which creates a poor user experience.

 

6.0 Medium Quality Pages

Medium pages have a beneficial purpose and achieve their purpose. There is nothing wrong with Medium quality pages. Expect to encounter many Medium quality pages in PQ rating tasks.

 

To identify Medium quality pages, start by considering the following:

 

Initial Consideration Medium Quality Pages
The purpose of the page Medium quality pages have a beneficial or non-harmful purpose.
The potential for the page to cause harm as described in these guidelines Medium quality pages are not expected to cause harm.
The topic of the page, the type of website, and the extent to which YMYL standards apply A page on any topic or any type of website may qualify for Medium.

 

Give special scrutiny to pages on YMYL topics or websites needing a high level of trust, such as online stores.

The title of the page Medium quality pages have titles that summarize the page.
The role of Ads and SC on the page The Ads and SC do not block or significantly interfere with the MC on

Medium quality pages.

 

Remember: Many websites need monetization to share content with users. The presence or absence of Ads alone is not a consideration for PQ rating.

Information provided by the website and content creator Medium quality pages have adequate information about the website and content creator for the purpose of the page. For stores or websites that process financial transactions, examine the customer service information.

 

Important: For personal content shared on social media platforms or forums, an alias or username is adequate.

 

Next, assess the page to determine if the criteria for Medium apply:

 

Medium Page Quality Assessment Medium Quality Criteria
Quality of the MC MC created with adequate effort, originality, talent, or skill such that the page achieves its purpose.
Reputation of the website and content creator Not especially positive nor especially negative: Reputation information found about the website or content creator is not concerning, but not positive enough to justify a higher rating.
Trustworthiness of the page: E-E-A-T Adequate level of E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page.

 

6.1 Types of Medium Quality Pages

 

There are two types of Medium quality pages:

 

Type of Medium Page Description
Nothing wrong, but nothing special All of the Medium Page Quality considerations and criteria apply.
Mixed, but with some redeeming qualities The page or website has some signs of High quality (E-E-A-T, quality of the MC, positive reputation), but also has one sign or mild signs of Low quality.

 

Important: For a page to receive a rating higher than Medium, it must meet the criteria described in the next sections on High and Highest page quality. For a page to receive a rating lower than Medium, it must meet the criteria for Low or Lowest page quality. Medium is a rating that applies to many pages you will encounter in PQ rating tasks: many pages have nothing wrong, yet do not represent the high or highest quality content that’s available online.

 

 

6.2 Examples of Medium Quality Pages

 

Webpage/Type of Content Medium Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

Medium: Encyclopedia

 

Wikipedia article about baroque pearls

 

 

 

Nothing wrong, but nothing special

 

● Adequate MC: achieves the purpose of the page

 

 

This is a short Wikipedia article about baroque pearls, a fairly narrow topic. This page achieves its purpose but doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating, such as effort in the form of interesting and meaningful content.

 

 

 

Medium: Humor

 

Page from a humorous site

 

 

 

 

Nothing wrong, but nothing special

 

● Adequate MC: achieves the purpose of the page

 

 

This page is from a humorous site that encourages users to post photos with mouths drawn on them. This page achieves its purpose but doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating, such as effort in the form of discussion, engagement, or comments from other users.

 

 

 

Medium: Entertainment 1

 

Article about “Keeping Up with the Kardashians” show

 

 

 

Nothing wrong, but nothing special

 

● Adequate MC: achieves the purpose of the page

 

 

This page is on a website dedicated to entertainment news. This page achieves its purpose but doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating, such as effort in the form of interesting and entertaining content, original images, etc.

 

Webpage/Type of Content Medium Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

Medium: Entertainment 2 Article about Miley Cyrus

 

 

 

Nothing wrong, but nothing special

 

● Adequate MC: achieves the purpose of the page

 

 

This page is from a news/entertainment website. This page achieves its purpose but doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating, such as effort in the form of interesting and entertaining content, original images, etc.

 

 

 

Medium: Lyrics

 

Song lyrics for the song “Never You/Fear Love”

 

 

 

Nothing wrong, but nothing special

 

● Adequate MC: achieves the purpose of the page

 

 

There are many lyrics websites that have similar content. This page achieves its purpose but doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating, such as effort in the form of depth of content, originality, etc.

 

 

 

 

Medium: Recipe 1

 

Mexi-Chicken Casserole on a newspaper website

 

 

 

 

Nothing wrong, but nothing special

 

● Adequate MC: achieves the purpose of the page

 

 

This recipe was contributed by a cookbook author. However, the page has no SC related to the purpose of the page, such as reviews or links to other recipes, etc. This page achieves its purpose but doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating, such as effort in the form of original images or comments from users who followed the recipe.

 

 

 

 

 

Medium: Recipe 2

 

Recipe for cherry-topped cake

 

 

 

 

Nothing wrong, but nothing special

 

● Adequate MC: achieves the purpose of the page

 

 

This website is known for high quality content about animals and the environment. This particular page has a recipe for kids. There isn’t much MC or SC. This page achieves its purpose but it doesn’t display characteristics associated with a High rating, such as effort in the form of more detailed steps or inspiration.

 

7.0 High Quality Pages

High quality pages serve a beneficial purpose and achieve that purpose well. High quality pages exist for almost any beneficial purpose you can imagine, from providing information to selling products to making people laugh to artistic expression.

 

To identify High quality pages, start by considering the following:

 

Initial Consideration High Quality Pages
The purpose of the page High quality pages have a beneficial purpose.
The potential for the page to cause harm as described in these guidelines High quality pages are not expected to cause harm.
The topic of the page, the type of website, and the extent to which YMYL standards apply A page on any topic or any type of website may qualify for High.

 

Give special scrutiny to pages on YMYL topics or websites needing a high level of trust, such as online stores.

The title of the page High quality pages have titles that summarize the page.
The role of Ads and SC on the page The Ads and SC do not block or significantly interfere with the MC on

High quality pages.

 

Remember: Many websites need monetization to share content with users. The presence or absence of Ads alone is not a consideration for PQ rating.

Information provided by the website and content creator High quality pages have adequate information about the website and content creator for the purpose of the page. For stores or websites that process financial transactions, examine the customer service information.

 

Important: For personal content shared on social media platforms or forums, an alias or username is adequate.

 

Next, assess the page to determine if the criteria for High apply:

 

High Page Quality Assessment High Quality Pages must demonstrate at least one of the following
Quality of the MC MC created with a high level of effort, originality, talent, or skill such that the page achieves its purpose well.
Reputation of the website and content creator Positive reputation of the website for the topic of the page.

 

Positive reputation of the content creator for the topic of the MC.

Trustworthiness of the page: E-E-A-T High level of E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page.

 

7.1 High Quality Main Content

 

High quality MC should be satisfying for people visiting the page. High quality MC shows evidence of effort, originality, talent, or skill. For informational pages, High quality MC must be accurate and consistent with well-established expert consensus when such consensus exists. Have high standards! If you aren’t sure whether the content is high quality, try finding other pages on the same topic to help calibrate your assessment: “typical” and “average” pages on a topic generally have Medium (not High) quality MC.

 

To help develop your standards, here are some examples of High quality MC in contrast with Low quality MC:

 

High Quality MC: Details and Examples Low Quality MC: Details and Examples
High level of effort: The website or content creators worked hard to create content that achieves the purpose of the page. The MC is well-organized, edited, and curated to support the purpose.

 

● A news article with accuracy, depth, and clarity

● A Q&A page or forum post with meaningful discussion by multiple participants

● A well-organized crafting tutorial page with clear, helpful instructions so that others can make the craft successfully

Low level of effort: The MC shows signs of a lack of effort by the website or content creators.

 

● Lack of curation or editing: Content that helps the page achieve its purpose is mixed with less helpful distracting or filler content

● Lack of content creation: A forum post with little discussion or only superficial comments

● Lack of organization: A crafting tutorial page with lots of unhelpful “filler” at the top and little effort put into explaining how to make the craft (the purpose of the page) at the bottom

High originality

● The MC is unique or original to the website

● Original photos or video footage produced by the website or content creator

● The content on the page is unique to the content creators, such as a personal perspective based on first-hand life experience

Low originality

● Information is summarized from other sources with little added value

● Photos or videos come from other sources

● A summary of the perspectives of others, such as summarizing product reviews written by others

High level of talent or skill

● The MC showcases the talent of the creator, e.g. a video of a talented content creator dancing

● The MC allows the page to achieve its purpose well because the content creator has talent or skill, e.g. a how-to article on plumbing by a skilled plumber

Low level of talent or skill

● A lack of adequate talent or skill prevents the page from achieving its purpose, e.g. a how-to article on plumbing by someone who does not have the necessary skill to explain the steps accurately

 

 

7.2 Positive Reputation

 

Positive reputation of the website can be a reason for a High rating if the website is responsible for the MC. If the website is not responsible for the MC (e.g., posts on social media websites or forums), positive reputation of the content creator(s) can be a reason for the High rating.

 

For non-YMYL topics, reputation information may be less formal. Popularity, user engagement, and user reviews can be considered evidence of reputation for non-YMYL websites: websites can be considered to have a positive reputation if they are popular and well-known for their topic or content type.

 

Remember: Many smaller websites and ordinary people have little reputation information available. A page can still receive a High rating without reputation information.

 

7.3 High Level of E-E-A-T

 

Depending on the purpose of the page, topic, and type of website, a high level of E-E-A-T may be required for the page to achieve its purpose well and be considered High quality. Pages with High E-E-A-T are trustworthy or very trustworthy.

 

Experience is valuable for almost any topic. Social media posts and forum discussions are often High quality when they involve people sharing their experience. From writing symphonies to reviewing home appliances, first-hand experience can make a social media post or discussion page High quality.
Expertise is required for satisfying content on a variety of topics, from hobbies such as photography to YMYL topics such as tax preparation. Think about the topic of the page and what expertise is needed to create satisfying, trustworthy content. There are many types of informal expertise that may be visible in the MC itself.
Authoritative pages of all types can be found. Government tax websites are an authoritative source for tax forms. Local businesses and organizations may be go-to sources for local information. When looking at a page or website, consider whether it is considered a go-to, authoritative source for the type of information it is displaying.
Trust is especially important for High quality pages that involve processing financial transactions or cover YMYL topics. Even if the topic is not YMYL, trust may still be required; for example, product reviews and pages offering advice require at least some level of trust. While not all pages require a high level of trust, a trustworthy page is often a satisfying one.

 

Think about the topic of the page. What kind of E-E-A-T is required for the page to achieve its purpose well?

 

7.4 Examples of High Quality Pages

 

Webpage/Type of Content High Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

High: News 1

 

Homepage of a newspaper

 

 

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● Positive website reputation for the topic of the page

 

 

The news on the homepage of a newspaper is often on topics that significantly impact society. This is a YMYL topic.

 

This is the homepage of a newspaper that has won several prestigious awards and has a positive reputation for its objective reporting. The articles on the homepage are original reporting by professional journalists (effort, skill, and original content unique to this site).

 

 

 

 

High: News 2

 

Opinion article on a newspaper website

 

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● Positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This is an opinion piece written by the Editorial Board of the largest newspaper in the U.S. state of Minnesota. The page is clearly labeled as an opinion piece, welcoming a new football coach to the University of Minnesota. This is original content unique to this site that was created by a skilled editorial board with expertise in editorial opinion writing.

 

 

 

High: Government agency

 

US Naval Observatory Master Clock page

 

 

 

 

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

The purpose of this page is to display the official US Naval Observatory Master Clock time in 7 different time zones. The page displays the clock information in a clear,

easy-to-read format. The Naval Observatory is highly trustworthy and authoritative for this type of information.

 

 

High: Humor

 

Article on a humor website

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● Positive website reputation for the topic of the page

 

 

This website is well-known for its humorous, satirical articles. This is a cute example of a satisfying and funny article (talent, skill, and original content unique to this site).

 

 

 

 

 

High: Small business 1 Local fish & chips restaurant

 

 

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This is an “about us” page on a restaurant website. This page provides information on when the restaurant opened and what visitors can expect. Other pages on the website provide information about the restaurant including the address, menu, other contact information, etc. The website is the go-to source for information about itself (Authoritative). The MC is high quality (effort, original content unique to this site).

 

Webpage/Type of Content High Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

High: Small business 2 Local preservation center

 

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This is the News and Updates section of a local preservation center selling poultry, vegetables, and more (Expertise). The MC is high quality (effort, original content unique to this site).

 

Note: This example was added in 2014 so the “News and Updates” were timely.

 

 

 

 

High: Blog post

 

Parenting article about strollers

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● Positive content creator reputation for the topic of the page

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This is a blog post on a newspaper that has won several prestigious awards. The author of this blog post has become known as an expert on parenting issues (Expertise) and is a regular contributor to this and other media websites (positive content creator reputation). The MC demonstrates effort and is original to this site.

 

 

 

 

 

High: Shopping 1

 

Backpack shopping page on a popular store website

 

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● Positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

The purpose of this page is to allow users to buy a school backpack. The page provides a lot of different backpack options, and some of them have user reviews.

 

This is a well-known, reputable merchant, with detailed Customer Service information on the site, making it very trustworthy (Trust). The MC demonstrates effort, and the products on sale are unique to this site (effort, original content).

 

 

 

High: Shopping 2

 

Bathroom décor page on a store website

 

 

 

● Positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This company sells its own line of high end, fashionable baby and children’s furniture and accessories. It has a positive reputation and expertise in these specific types of goods.

Many products sold on the site are unique to this company.

 

 

High: Video 1

 

Saturday Night Live video on a video website

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

The MC of this video page is an episode of Saturday Night Live, which represents original content produced by a talented organization with experience and expertise in producing humorous television shows.

 

Webpage/Type of Content High Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

High: Video 2

 

“An Engineer’s Guide to Cats” video

 

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This is a humorous, high quality video, illustrating the proper care and practical benefits of cats (original content, talent). The two engineers in the video are very experienced in cat ownership (Experience). For a humorous video like this one, experience (rather than formal expertise in cat care) is enough for it to have high E-E-A-T.

 

 

 

High: Game Online game

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● Positive website reputation for the topic of the page

 

 

Highly engaging game with multiple levels that could entertain a child for hours (effort, original content, talent and skill in game design). This website has a positive reputation for educating children about animals, and this particular animal game is consistent with that reputation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

High: Encyclopedia

 

Encyclopedia article about the American Civil War

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● Positive website reputation for the topic of the page

 

 

This is a detailed article about the American Civil War. The citations support the E-E-A-T of this article.

 

There is a large quantity of in-depth, original content (effort, accuracy). This website has a positive reputation as a good resource for finding a wealth of generally known facts about topics such as this one.

 

Note: Although much of the content is visible on the mobile page, we consider the content under the headings (which you need to expand) to be part of the MC. (To see the screenshot, you will need to zoom in to the image.)

 

8.0 Highest Quality Pages

Highest quality pages serve a beneficial purpose and achieve that purpose very well. The distinction between High and

Highest is based on the quality of MC, the reputation of the website and content creator, and/or E-E-A-T. To identify Highest quality pages, start by considering the following:

Initial Consideration Highest Quality Pages
The purpose of the page Highest quality pages have a beneficial purpose.
The potential for the page to cause harm as described in these guidelines Highest quality pages are not expected to cause harm.
The topic of the page, the type of website, and the extent to which YMYL standards apply A page on any topic or any type of website may qualify for Highest.

 

Give special scrutiny to pages on YMYL topics or websites needing a high level of trust, such as online stores.

The title of the page Highest quality pages have titles that summarize the page.
The role of Ads and SC on the page The Ads and SC do not block or significantly interfere with the MC on

HIghest quality pages.

 

Remember: Many websites need monetization to share content with users. The presence or absence of Ads alone is not a consideration for PQ rating.

Information provided by the website and content creator Highest quality pages have adequate information about the website and content creator for the purpose of the page. For stores or websites that process financial transactions, examine the customer service information.

 

Important: For personal content shared on social media platforms or forums, an alias or username is adequate.

 

Next, assess the page to determine if the criteria for Highest apply:

 

Highest Page Quality Assessment Highest Quality Pages must demonstrate at least one of the following
Quality of the MC MC created with a very high level of effort, originality, talent, or skill such that the page achieves its purpose very well.
Reputation of the website and content creator Very positive reputation of the website for the topic of the page.

 

Very positive reputation of the content creator for the topic of the MC.

Trustworthiness of the page: E-E-A-T Very high level of E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page.

 

8.1 Very High Quality MC

 

Very high quality MC should be highly satisfying for people visiting the page. Very high quality MC shows evidence of a high level of effort, originality, talent, or skill. For informational pages, very high quality MC must be accurate, clearly communicated, and consistent with well-established expert consensus when it exists. Very high quality MC represents some of the most outstanding content on a topic or type that’s available online.

 

The standards for Highest quality MC may be very different depending on the purpose, topic, and type of website. Here are some examples of Highest quality original content:

 

  • For news: Original reporting that provides information that would not otherwise have been known had the article not revealed it. Accurate, original, in-depth, and investigative reporting requires a high level of skill/talent and effort. Very high quality news content will include a description of primary sources and other original reporting referenced during the content creation process. Very high quality news content must be accurate and should meet professional journalistic standards.
  • For artistic content (videos, images, photography, writing, etc.): Unique and original content created by highly skilled and talented artists or content Such artistic content requires a high level of skill/talent and effort. If the artistic content is related to a YMYL topic (e.g., artistic content with the purpose of informing or swaying opinion about YMYL topics), YMYL standards should apply.
  • For informational content: Original, accurate, comprehensive, clearly communicated, and should reflect expert consensus as appropriate. Expectations for different types of information may vary. For example, scientific papers have a different set of expectations than a social media post sharing information about a hobby such as stamp collecting. However, all types of very high quality informational content share common characteristics of accuracy and clarity of communication, in addition to meeting standards appropriate to the topic or field.

 

The Highest rating may be justified for pages with very satisfying MC created with a very high level of effort, originality, talent, or skill.

 

 

8.2 Very Positive Reputation

 

Reputation research is important when giving Highest ratings. For YMYL topics, very positive reputation is often based on recommendations from known experts or professional societies appropriate to the topic of the page. Prestigious awards may be evidence as well, depending on the topic and type of content.

 

For non-YMYL topics, reputation information may be less formal. Popularity, user engagement, and user reviews can be considered evidence of reputation for non-YMYL websites: websites and content creators can be considered to have a very positive reputation if they are seen as one of the best sources available online for a topic or type of content.

 

Remember: Many smaller websites and ordinary people have little reputation information. A page can still receive a

Highest rating without reputation information.

 

 

8.3 Very High Level of E-E-A-T

 

Very high E-E-A-T is a distinguishing factor for Highest quality pages. A website or content creator who is the uniquely authoritative, go-to source for a topic has very high E-E-A-T. A content creator with a wealth of experience may be considered to have very high E-E-A-T for topics where experience is the primary factor in trust. A very high level of expertise can justify a very high E-E-A-T assessment. Very high E-E-A-T websites and content creators are the most trusted sources on the internet for a particular topic.

 

Think about what E-E-A-T means for the topic of the page. How important is first-hand experience? Who are the experts? What makes a source highly authoritative for the topic? What makes a website or content creator trustworthy for the topic? Standards for very high E-E-A-T will differ depending on the topic of the page.

 

8.4 Examples of Highest Quality Pages

 

Webpage/Type of Content Highest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: News 1

 

Article on a newspaper website

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Reporting on environmental toxicity can significantly impact the health and financial security of people, businesses and government agencies. This page is on a YMYL topic.

 

This is a feature article from a newspaper that has won numerous awards (very positive reputation of the website).

 

The page has a comprehensive amount of very high-quality MC, including in-depth reporting (effort, original content unique to this site, skill, accuracy) by authors with extensive knowledge and experience in investigative journalism (Expertise).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: News 2

 

Article on a newspaper website

 

 

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very positive content creator reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This is an article on a newspaper website that has won a variety of awards.

 

The article has a comprehensive amount of very high quality MC that is unique and original, including in-depth investigative reporting by two authors with extensive knowledge and experience in investigative journalism (effort, original content unique to this site, skill, accuracy). The reporters were finalists for a prestigious news award for the investigative reporting of this article (very positive reputation of the content creators).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Informational 1 Fact-checking page on an

Internet rumor debunking website

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This page is on a well-known fact-checking and debunking website that covers urban legends, Internet rumors, and other stories of unknown or questionable origin (very positive reputation of the website).

 

The page has a very satisfying amount of original MC for users seeking to validate a photo claiming to have discovered a mermaid (effort, skill in fact checking, original content). Users can trust the information on this page due to the website’s positive reputation and high level of expertise in debunking stories of this type.

 

Webpage/Type of Content Highest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Informational 2

 

Ball gown wedding dress page

 

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

 

 

This page has very satisfying MC for users interested in ball gown wedding dresses. An abundance of pictures, plus options to view by price range, style, etc., are part of what makes this page so satisfying (effort demonstrated in the depth and types of content). This page is on a very popular wedding planning website (very positive reputation of the website).

 

 

 

Highest: Government agency

 

Yosemite National Park information

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This page has very satisfying and helpful information about Yosemite National Park, including traffic alerts and links to other parts of the website with additional information (effort, accuracy). Since the page is on the official national park website, it is uniquely authoritative (highest E-E-A-T).

 

 

 

Highest: Technical 1 Software tips

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This page offers very satisfying and helpful MC for the purpose of the page. Because the page is on the official website of the company that produces the software, it is highly authoritative (highest E-E-A-T).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Technical 2 Linux Kernel archives

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

From this Wikipedia article, we learn that “Kernel.org is a main repository of source code for the Linux kernel, the base of the popular Linux operating system. It makes all versions of the source code available to all users… The main purpose of the site is to host a repository for Linux kernel developers and maintainers of Linux distributions.”

 

This website is the most authoritative source for information about Linux (highest E-E-A-T) and has a very positive reputation in the topic of the page.

 

Webpage/Type of Content Highest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Financial 1

 

Credit report information website

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Credit reports significantly impact a person’s financial choices and opportunities. This is a YMYL topic.

 

Users in the U.S. can obtain free credit reports on this website by providing their Social Security Number. This Wikipedia article tells us that this website is “the only federally mandated and authorized source for obtaining a free credit report”. This website is uniquely authoritative (highest E-E-A-T) and has a very positive reputation for credit report information.

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Financial 2 Tax forms page

 

 

 

 

 

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Income tax forms significantly impact a person’s financial security. This is a YMYL topic.

 

The purpose of the page is to provide income tax forms and publications. The website represents an agency of the U.S. federal government that handles taxes, so the page and forms are uniquely authoritative and trustworthy.

 

 

Highest: Magazine Article 1

 

Article titled “Secret Fears of the Super-Rich”

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

 

 

This article is on a magazine website that has won multiple National Magazine awards (very positive reputation for this type of article). The article has in-depth MC that is unique and original (effort, skill, original content).

 

 

 

Highest: Magazine Article 2 Interview with musical artist

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

 

 

This magazine is very well-known and well regarded for content about artists and bands, and specifically has a positive reputation for interviews with musicians. This article features in-depth, original content in its interview with the artist.

 

Webpage/Type of Content Highest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Medical 1 BMI calculator

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

BMI is used by healthcare professionals to screen for various health issues and can significantly impact a person’s medical treatment. This is a YMYL topic.

 

The purpose of this page is to provide an online BMI (Body Mass Index) calculator. The calculator is functional and easy to use. This page was created with effort and skill, and it accomplishes its purpose very well by offering very high quality and satisfying MC.

 

The website represents an institute that is part of the National Institutes of Health. It has an extremely good reputation and is an expert in medical topics.

 

 

 

 

Highest: Medical 2 Page about meningitis

 

 

 

 

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Information about meningitis could significantly impact a person’s health. This is a YMYL topic.

 

This is a meningitis reference page on a trustworthy and authoritative website for a nonprofit medical research group. This website has a reputation of being one of the best web resources for medical information.

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Medical 3 Page about seasonal flu

 

 

 

 

 

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Many patient hospitalizations and deaths occur due to the flu each year. This topic could significantly impact a person’s health. This is a YMYL topic.

 

This is an influenza reference page on a trustworthy and authoritative medical website. This website has a reputation of being one of the best web resources for medical information of this type.

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Medical 4

 

Health information on a hospital page

 

 

 

 

 

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Information about hospital services and treatments could significantly impact a person’s ability to seek and receive healthcare. This is a YMYL topic.

 

According to this Wikipedia article, this hospital is “currently regarded as one of the top 4 hospitals in the United States as rated by U.S. News & World Report.” Users can trust medical information on this website.

 

Webpage/Type of Content Highest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Shopping Backpack shopping page

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

The purpose of this page is to provide information about, and allow users to buy, a specific type of school backpack. The page provides a lot of helpful product information, as well as 600 user reviews (effort, original content).

 

Since the store produces this backpack (unique product), they are experts on the product, making the page on their own website authoritative (highest E-E-A-T). In addition, this store has a reputation for producing one of the highest quality and most popular school backpacks on the market.

 

 

 

 

Highest: Login

 

Online banking login page

 

 

 

 

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Accessing one’s financial information significantly impacts a person’s financial decisions and security. This is a YMYL topic.

 

This page has login functionality and clear information about what the user is logging into. This is a large, popular bank that has a good reputation and is considered highly trustworthy.

 

 

 

Highest: Charity Homepage of a charity

 

 

 

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Disaster relief significantly impacts people and society in a time of crisis. This page is on a YMYL topic.

 

This is a highly reputable charity according to multiple charity rating organizations.

 

 

 

 

Highest: PDF File Campus map

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This PDF file is a detailed campus map of a major university, which is hosted on the official university website. This is a highly authoritative source for this information. The map includes a listing of all the buildings, parking structures, parking lots, construction areas, etc. (effort, skill, accuracy).

 

 

 

Highest: Recipe

 

Chocolate chip cookie recipe on a recipe blog

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

The author of this blog has documented her extensive experimentation with a chocolate chip cookie recipe (Experience), and her expertise and skill is demonstrated in the large quantity of unique, original, and very satisfying MC.

 

Webpage/Type of Content Highest Quality Justification PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

Highest: Video 1

 

The band OK Go’s music video for the song “This Too Shall Pass”

 

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

 

 

This is a high quality, professionally produced video on the band’s official channel. The music video represents unique and original content created by a highly skilled and talented musical artist (talent, skill, effort, original content).

 

In addition, this video sharing website has a positive reputation for hosting official music videos from bands.

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Video 2

 

“Henri 2, Paw de Deux” video

 

 

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

 

 

This is an amateur video that went viral, created by a film school student about his mother’s cat. It won the “Golden Kitty Award” for “Best Cat Video On The Internet” at

the Walker Art Center’s Internet Cat Video Film Festival. The video is unique and original content created with a high level of effort.

 

In addition, this video sharing website has a positive reputation for cute cat videos.

 

 

 

 

Highest: Video 3

 

Saturday Night Live video on the TV network’s website

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very positive content creator reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

The MC of this video page is an episode of Saturday Night Live on the TV network’s official website, which is a go-to source for this content. The episode represents high quality and original content created by a TV show that has won numerous awards. Below the main video, there are many other videos that users may be interested in.

 

9.0 Page Quality Criteria for Specific Types of Pages

9.1 Ratings for Encyclopedia Pages

 

There are many encyclopedia-type websites. Some are highly-respected publications that are standard references, while some are websites with content created and edited by anonymous users, with no editorial oversight or fact checking. We may not always know the author of the specific encyclopedia article, and therefore must rely on website reputation research to determine the E-E-A-T of the article. High and Highest quality ratings should only be used for encyclopedias with very good reputations for accuracy and expertise, where the article itself is well-researched with appropriate references cited.

 

A note about Wikipedia: in general, the website has a good reputation and is a very popular resource that is generally valued for accuracy. However, there is no single author or organization that vouches for the accuracy of Wikipedia articles, and the quality of pages varies. You should check individual articles to evaluate the quality of the MC.

 

A Wikipedia article on a non-YMYL topic (example) with a satisfying amount of accurate information and trustworthy external references can usually be rated in the High range. A PQ rating in the Medium range is often appropriate for pages with less extensive MC and external references. Naturally, Wikipedia articles with very little MC should get lower PQ ratings. Factual inaccuracy is a sufficient reason for a Low or Lowest rating.

 

 

9.2 Ratings for Pages with Error Messages or No MC

 

In PQ rating tasks, you may encounter pages with error messages or other types of “broken” pages. Please think about whether the page offers help for users—did the website owner make an effort to ensure that users visiting the page have a good experience and get help finding what they are looking for?

 

Pages with an explicit error (or custom 404) message are often Medium quality, since they tend to clearly communicate that there’s a problem and help users navigate to other/better pages on the website. A rating of High (or occasionally even Highest) may be used for the rare error message page that involves a high level of effort and original content and provides a truly satisfying experience for users.

 

Pages that are “broken” are often Low quality, because the broken aspect prevents them from achieving their purpose even if the problem is temporary and likely to be fixed later on by the website owner. However, sometimes “broken” pages should be rated Lowest if the problem is not temporary and instead is due to a systemic problem with the website. To differentiate between Low quality (temporarily broken) vs. Lowest quality (evidence of a systemic problem) pages, check other pages on the same website. If many other pages have the same problem, there is a systemic lack of effort on the part of the website owner that justifies the Lowest rating. Otherwise, use the Low rating to reflect the (hopefully temporary!) issue with the MC on the page.

 

Here are some examples:

 

Webpage/Type of Content Characteristics of the Page PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

Lowest: Deliberately created with no MC (systemic problem)

 

 

 

● No MC

● Content created with little to no effort, talent, skill, originality, manual curation, or added value for users

 

 

This is an example of a page with no MC. You might think that the MC is “missing” due to a problem with this particular page, but in fact, this website has hundreds of pages that look the same—no MC, just Ads. This website shows Ads with little or no attempt to help users, and should be rated Lowest quality.

 

Webpage/Type of Content Characteristics of the Page PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

Low: Page didn’t fully load and has no MC (temporarily broken)

 

 

 

 

 

● No MC (probably due to a temporary technical error)

● Positive website reputation

 

 

This page has no MC and no error message. It is an isolated example of a page with no MC or error message on a website for a reputable newspaper for a town in Michigan. All of the navigation links work, and the page was later fixed. This page can be viewed as lacking in effort (an error that was not caught before the page went live).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medium: Error page with custom 404 message

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Nothing wrong, but nothing special

 

 

This is an example of a “custom 404” page, alerting users that the URL they are trying to visit no longer exists. Some websites do a nice job of alerting users about a problem and providing helpful tips.

 

This page is on a well-known merchant website with a good reputation. However, this particular page displays the bare minimum of content needed to explain the problem to users, and the only helpful content is a link to the homepage.

 

 

 

High: Error page with custom 404 message

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● Positive website reputation

 

 

This is an example of a “custom 404” page, alerting users that the URL they are trying to visit no longer exists. This website does a nice job of explaining the issue and providing helpful tips, including a search box.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Error page with custom 404 message

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Very positive website reputation

 

 

This is an example of a “custom 404” page. These pages are designed to alert users that the URL they are trying to visit no longer exists. The MC of this page is the cartoon, the caption, and the search functionality, which is specific to the content of the website. It is clear that effort and talent was involved in the creation of the MC.

 

This publication has a very positive reputation and is specifically known for its cartoons, which allows us to go as high as High+ to Highest.

This is among the most clever, original, and satisfying custom 404 messages that can be found online!

 

9.3 Ratings for Forums and Q&A Pages

 

Ratings for forum and Q&A pages can be challenging. Here is some guidance on how to approach these pages:

 

● The Main Content includes the question, the answers/responses, and the resulting discussions.

  • Rate from the point of view of a user who visits the page, rather than a participant involved in the
  • Users who post answers/responses or comments are often identified only by a username or A page can be High or Highest quality with just usernames or aliases depending on other criteria.

● The E-E-A-T of a discussion among users can often be judged by the posts or comments themselves.

  • For some topics, Experience is the most important dimension of Trust. For other topics, assessing Expertise through the posts may be In some cases, the posters themselves will highlight either their own Experience or Expertise, or other people will comment on it.
  • Pages on YMYL topics require more attention to Trust and more care in the assessment of E-E-A-
  • Highest quality forum/Q&A pages have extremely satisfying conversations, including participation from users who have put a great deal of effort into their posts and have a wealth of Experience and/or Expertise on the Such conversations can be very satisfying because of the depth of discussion, the unique insights, or the sharing of experiences that many would not have access to in their real-world community.
  • Low quality forum/Q&A pages often lack effort (few responses, surface-level rather than in-depth discussion), lack Experience or Expertise, contain mild inaccuracies, or show a significant lack of respect or decorum among the participants that might deter others from joining the discussion.
  • Lowest quality forum/Q&A pages may contain information or advice that is harmfully misleading, contradicts well-established expert consensus, encourages harm towards self or other individuals/participants, etc.

 

One challenge is rating pages with little to no participation, and/or no answer to an open question:

 

  • A new page or recently started discussion that consists only of a question or initial post by a person should generally be rated Medium unless there are other low quality These pages may need time to achieve their purpose.
  • Over time, no participation in a discussion (or only superficial discussion) and/or no meaningful answer to an open question may be a reason for a Low quality rating, especially in the presence of other low quality attributes.

 

Another challenge occurs when the discussion on the page drifts, becomes combative, or becomes dominated by misleading or spammy content. When rating, value the insightful, meaningful discussion that exists. If the page is a mix of high and low quality characteristics but has insightful, meaningful discussion, the Medium rating may be most appropriate as long as the page is not potentially harmful.

 

Here are some examples:

 

Webpage/Type of Content Characteristics of the Page PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lowest: Q&A page about chest pains and smoking

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harmfully Misleading Information: Contains inaccurate and potentially dangerous medical advice about a YMYL topic

 

 

Information about chest pain and smoking could significantly impact people’s decisions to seek medical treatment. This page is on a YMYL topic.

 

This page must be evaluated from the point of view of a user visiting this page from a search engine, rather than a participant. The question is poorly worded and difficult to understand.

There aren’t many responses. One response correctly warns about the danger of smoking cigarettes but suggests smoking marijuana instead. Another response suggests that it’s fine to keep smoking and that aspirin can be used to address pain. The last response lacks respect: it asks if the person who asked the original question is stupid.

 

The answers have incorrect and potentially dangerous medical advice, making it lowest quality MC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low: Q&A page about a 2002 Volvo part

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Unsatisfying MC for the purpose of the page: does not achieve the purpose well

● Misleading page design

 

 

Please read the MC (areas with red boxes around it), including the completely unhelpful “answer.” This answer is so unhelpful, we can consider this question to be unanswered. This page has an unsatisfying amount of MC.

 

In addition to a very unhelpful “answer,” the page design makes it difficult to distinguish the MC from Ads. For example, below the answer, we see a “sponsored answer,” which has the same format as the real answer, but is actually an Ad and not an answer to the question—this is a misleading page design.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medium: Forum page with a new question, posted by a person

 

 

 

 

Nothing wrong, nothing special

 

● Real in-depth question, posted very recently

● No one has responded (yet)

 

Forums rely on user engagement to create satisfying MC. In this case, a real person has posted a question that can lead to good discussion. The question is only hours old (at the time this example was created).

 

For new questions, discussions and threads, a Medium rating is appropriate if there are no low quality characteristics but also no opportunity for discussion yet.

 

Webpage/Type of Content Characteristics of the Page PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

Medium: Forum page on an online auction website

 

 

Mixed, but with some redeeming qualities:

 

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

● Unsatisfying MC for the purpose of the page: does not achieve the purpose well

 

 

The relative lack of effort/participation in the discussion and depth of the MC is balanced by the high E-E-A-T of this forum. This forum is dedicated to this kind of question and therefore has a high level of expertise.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medium: Forum page on how to wash ballet shoes

 

 

 

 

 

Mixed, but with some redeeming qualities:

 

● Adequate MC: achieves the purpose of the page

● Ads or SC significantly distract from or interrupt the use of MC

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This forum is about dance topics, and many pages have expertise from a community of ballet dancers. On this particular page, participants have first-hand experience washing ballet shoes and make recommendations based on their own experiences.

 

This page is “mixed” because there is some distracting content that makes it hard to read the MC. However, this is not a beauty contest! Even though the page may be cluttered, there is some valuable E-E-A-T and helpful MC, making Medium a good rating for this page.

 

 

 

 

 

High: Forum post on the magic loop technique in knitting

 

 

 

 

● MC is satisfying for the purpose of the page: demonstrates effort, originality, talent, or skill

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

The person who posted the first message on this forum page provides a helpful resource on how to master the magic loop technique in knitting (effort, skill). She also shares pictures of her own version using an old pair of blue jeans (original content). With over 20 years of experience knitting socks, we would consider her to be an expert on the topic.

 

 

 

 

 

High: Q&A page about whether a Roomba will work

 

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

Many participants share their personal experiences with these products, giving details such as how well certain models work with pet hair (effort, first-hand experience, original content). There are many descriptions of participants’ own experiences with this product and how well it works for them, making the MC satisfying for the purpose of the page.

 

Webpage/Type of Content Characteristics of the Page PQ Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

High: Forum page on authenticating a purse

 

 

 

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● Positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This forum is a go-to source for discussions on luxury designer purses (positive website reputation, experience, expertise, “go-to” authority). On this particular forum page, members are consulting forum experts who have expertise authenticating bags from this brand. These experts can tell if a particular bag is authentic or fake. The quality of the MC is high due to the level of effort, skill, and engagement among those who participate in the forum. While there is an ad at the top and a few ads within the forum message, it does not distract from the MC, which is easy to find.

 

 

 

 

 

High: Forum page on landscaping an aquarium

 

 

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● High E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

This discussion focuses on the landscaping for a particular paludarium (an aquarium with terrestrial and aquatic elements). There is a lot of discussion and interaction between forum members about the types of materials and species used in the aquarium (effort, original or unique content). The posts show expertise in a niche topic aquarium landscaping (experience, expertise).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Q&A page about how long most cancer patients live

 

 

 

 

 

● Very satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page very well

● Positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

How long a person may live with a disease could significantly impact life decisions. This is a YMYL topic.

 

This is a Q&A page on a medical question that is well-answered by non-experts with life experience. There are many responses describing how long a loved one lived after diagnosis. The focus of the page is experience, not medical advice. Many responses are based on personal experience and are helpful for this topic.

 

 

 

 

 

Highest: Q&A page on abbreviations

 

 

 

● Satisfying MC: achieves the purpose of the page well

● Very positive website reputation for the topic of the page

● Very high E-E-A-T for the purpose of the page

 

 

The purpose of the page is to answer questions about the usage of abbreviations, and it contains helpful information about common abbreviation issues. This website has a very good reputation as a reference for information on writing, publishing, etc. It is considered highly authoritative and trustworthy for the topic of the page.

 

10.0 Page Quality Rating Tasks

At first, PQ rating may seem difficult. There are several aspects of the page and the website to look at and think about.

 

Important: Do not struggle with each PQ rating. Please give your best rating and move on. If you are having trouble deciding between two ratings, use the lower rating. If you are torn between three ratings, choose the one in the middle.

 

Do not consider the country or location of the page or website for PQ rating. For example, English (US) raters should use the same PQ standards when rating pages from other English language websites (UK websites, Canadian websites, etc.) as they use when rating pages from U.S. websites. In other words, English (US) raters should not lower the PQ rating because the page location (UK, Canada) does not match the task location.

 

These guidelines are specific to “regular” webpages. Occasionally, you may be asked to rate a landing page that is not a webpage. For example, you may be asked to rate a PDF file, a PNG or JPEG image file, etc. When the landing page of the URL is not a webpage, some of the criteria in these guidelines may not apply. In this case, please use your judgment.

 

Finally, this Page Quality Rating Guideline does not completely cover every aspect of page quality. If you find pages that you truly believe to be High or Low quality, please rate them as such, even if the reason is based on something not covered in these guidelines. Please use the comment section to explain your reasoning. As always, use your judgment.

 

 

10.1 Instructions for Rating Page Quality Tasks

 

The Page Quality task page is broken up into several parts:

 

  1. Some initial questions about the task landing
  2. A “PQ grid” to record your observations about PQ characteristics of the landing
  3. The Overall PQ rating slider which records your Overall PQ
  4. A comment box to explain your

 

Some results to the initial questions will end the task early. If the page is Porn, Foreign Language, Did Not Load, or consists of restricted or inaccessible MC (e.g., subscription is required to view MC), you will not fill in the PQ grid or assign an overall rating.

 

  • Foreign Language should not be used when the language on the landing page is in the task language, a language that is commonly used by a significant percentage of the population in the task location, or
  • Did Not Load should be used for pages where there is absolutely no content on the page created by the There is no MC, SC, or Ads on the page. See this Wikipedia article for descriptions of different types of error messages.

 

The PQ grid is designed to be your “note pad.” It allows you to record your observations about the landing page and the website it belongs to.

 

11.0 Page Quality Rating FAQs

 

 

Question Answer
 

Why do we have to do all these steps? This takes a long time!

With practice, the amount of time needed for accurate PQ ratings will decrease. The steps are important and are designed to help you assess many different aspects of PQ. You may be surprised by what you find. Pages that initially look Low quality may turn out to be Medium or High quality with careful inspection. The reverse may happen as well. We want your most informed, thoughtful opinion.
Are we just giving High quality ratings to pages that “look” good? No! The goal is to do the exact opposite. These steps are designed to help you analyze the page without using a superficial “does it look good?” approach.
 

 

 

 

 

Is sharing a personal experience or opinion a beneficial purpose? What if the personal opinion is upsetting or offensive?

Sharing a personal experience or opinion can be a beneficial purpose as it allows people to appreciate different perspectives. Content on the Internet can help people understand why others think and feel the way they do.

 

It can be valuable to see the opinions and perspectives of others, even when they are off-putting, distasteful, upsetting, or offensive to you personally. Apply the standards of these guidelines rather than your own personal opinions or views.

 

However, sometimes opinions and perspectives can spread misleading information or otherwise have the potential to cause harm. Therefore, apply the standards in these guidelines to all types of pages and content.

 

Remember: Your assessment of harm happens before and overrides other considerations such as the life experience or expertise of the content creator.

 

 

 

 

Can life experience justify a Highest quality rating for a page on a YMYL topic?

Factual information and advice on YMYL topics should come from experts. Sharing life experience on YMYL topics can be Highest quality, but it must be trustworthy, safe, consistent with well-established expert consensus, and speak to topics that life experience is valuable for.

 

For example, information about when and where to vote is a YMYL topic. It’s possible to have a Highest quality page that shares life experience about voting, such as an inspiring personal post about becoming a citizen and voting for the first time. However, if a page about someone’s voting experience gives inaccurate information about when and where to vote either deliberately or through careless oversight, the page should be rated Lowest because it could cause others to miss the opportunity to vote.

 

 

 

You talked about expertise when rating MC. Does expertise matter for all topics? Aren’t there some topics for which there are no experts?

Remember that we are not just talking about formal expertise. Informal expertise is equally important, and for some topics may be a more common type of E-E-A-T.

 

For most page purposes and topics, you can find experts even when the field itself is niche or non-mainstream. For example, there are expert alternative medicine websites created by leading practitioners of acupuncture, herbal therapy, etc. There are also pages about alternative medicine written by people with no expertise or experience.

E-E-A-T should differentiate between these two scenarios.

 

Reminder: If the page is harmful to people or society, untrustworthy, or spammy as defined in these guidelines, expertise and experience doesn’t matter. It should be rated Lowest.

 

Question Answer
 

 

 

 

When I think about E-E-A-T, it seems like expertise and experience overlap a lot.

What’s the difference?

Here’s one way to think about it:

Expertise often involves objective, testable knowledge or skills, for example: can you calculate the load bearing weight of a bridge?

Experience can be more subjective and is often shared through personal narration, for example: how does it feel to experience love for another person?

 

For PQ rating, it’s not important to distinguish between expertise and experience. Instead, focus on what kind of content is trustworthy and satisfying for the purpose of the page. You may find that both expertise and experience can be trustworthy and satisfying for the same topic. For example, a medical website may be a trustworthy source for treatment options, and the experiences of other people who have gone through treatment may provide emotional support and prepare you for what to expect.

 

 

Aren’t some types of pages always Low quality, such as celebrity gossip?

For almost any type of page or informational topic, there is a range of content quality.

 

For example, there are both High and Low quality celebrity gossip pages. The purpose of these pages is to share interesting, accurate information about celebrities. There may be benefits in celebrity stories that inspire others or help people going through similar challenges. A celebrity gossip page is High quality if it has accurate and interesting information, has no characteristics of Low or Lowest quality, and comes from a reasonably reliable source.

I’ve never seen a High quality page of type X. If there are no high quality pages of this type, why are we giving existing pages a Low quality rating?  

For some topics or types of pages, there may not be many (or any!) High quality pages now, but there may be in the future. We need a uniform set of standards that apply to all pages, even for pages that have not yet been created.

Some of these criteria seem unfair. For example, some art pages do not have a purpose. Are these pages Low quality? Art pages do have a purpose: artistic expression. Pages created for artistic expression do not deserve the Low quality rating simply because they have no other purpose.

Artistic expression, humor, entertainment, sharing photos and videos, etc. are all valid and beneficial page purposes.

 

How should interstitials factor into my rating?

Sometimes clicking on the task URL will bring up an interstitial page. You can ignore this page in your rating criteria if you can easily get to the MC. However, if the interstitial makes it extremely hard (or impossible) to get to the MC and evaluate how well the page achieves its purpose, that should factor into your PQ rating.

 

Part 2: Understanding Search User Needs

 

12.0 Understanding Search Users, Queries, and Results

Why do people search the Internet?

 

People use Internet search engines to perform many different tasks in different environments using different types of devices, such as mobile phones, tablets, laptops, or computers. Keep in mind that searches can be simple or complex, and the underlying task that a person is trying to accomplish may take multiple steps to complete. For example, a simple task may be to find the director of a movie. A complex task may be to find a movie’s showtimes nearby, purchase tickets, and get directions to go to the theater. Overall, search engines should make it easy for people to complete tasks by surfacing helpful results right away.

 

 

12.1 Important Rating Definitions and Ideas

 

 

User: A person who is searching. People search everywhere: people in all countries, speaking all languages; people of all ages, genders, races, religions, political affiliations, etc.

 

Query: The text, image and/or other content that a user enters in a search engine search box or search app to do a search. In these guidelines, queries have square brackets around them to look like a search box. If a user says “coffee shops near me,” we display: [coffee shops near me]. If a user types “flights to New York” in the search box, we display: [flights to New York]. Queries may be spoken, typed, copied and pasted, come directly from a camera or other app, and/or be related searches that appear in search results.

 

There are many different types of queries because people use search to do many things, from searching for specific websites to looking for answers to questions to browsing videos for inspiration to searching with an image to figure out where to buy a product.

 

Query interpretation: The possible meaning(s) of the query or what the query may refer to. Many queries have more than one meaning. For example, the query [apple] might refer to the computer brand or the fruit or something else.

 

User Intent: What the user is trying to accomplish when they search. For example, if a user searches for a movie, they may be interested in showtimes, reviews, cast, etc. For a specific query interpretation, there may be many possible user intents. A single user may have many different intents for a single query!

 

Locale: All queries have a locale, which is the language and region for the task. Regions are represented by a two-letter country code, for example, “US” in the locale “English (US)”. For a current list of country codes, click here. We sometimes refer to the locale as the task location.

 

User Location: Sometimes more specific information about the location of the person searching is provided, usually a city or state. In rating tasks, this information may be shown on a map. User location is very important for understanding the query and what results are helpful for searches related to nearby places, such as [coffee shops near me]. For other searches such as [how does gravity work], user location is not important at all, as gravity works the same way everywhere.

 

Search Engine Results Page (SERP): The page a search engine shows after a user enters a query in the search box. The SERP is made up of result blocks.

 

Result: We will use the word result to refer to the result block and the landing page.

 

  • Result Block: This is an individual “block” that appears on the user’s device in response to the The result block may display information in the block itself or contain links, or may do both.

 

  • The Landing Page (LP) is the page you see after you click a link in the result

 

 

12.2 Understanding the Query

 

Understanding the query is the first step in evaluating the task. Remember, a query is what a user types or speaks into their device.

 

Some tasks include a query research link, which you should use if you don’t understand the query or user intent. Otherwise, please do web research using Google or an online dictionary or encyclopedia. If you still don’t understand the query or user intent, please release the task.

 

Important: If you research the query on Google, please do not rely on the top results on the SERP. A query may have other meanings not represented on Google’s search results pages. Do not assign a high rating to a webpage just because it appears at the top of a list of search results on Google.

 

Think about users in your locale typing or speaking the following queries into their phone.

 

Query User Intent
[population of paris], English (US) Find the current population of Paris, France.
[starbucks near me], English (US) Find the nearest Starbucks location.
[weather], English (US) Find weather information in the user location right now.

 

12.3 Locale and User Location

 

All queries have a task language and task location (referred to in rating tasks as the “Locale”). The locale is important for understanding the query and user intent. Users in different locales may have different expectations for the same query.

 

Some tasks show a user location in addition to a locale.

 

However, for many or most queries in a given locale, the user location does not change our understanding of the query and user intent. Here are some examples: [facebook.com], [pictures of kittens], [distance between the earth and the moon].

 

When is the locale or user location important in understanding query interpretation and user intent? Please use both web research and your personal judgment to answer this question. Ask yourself, “Would people in one city or country be looking for something different than people in another city or country?”

 

12.4 Queries with an Explicit Location

 

Sometimes people tell search engines exactly what kinds of results they are looking for by adding the desired location in the query, regardless of their own location. We’ll call this location inside the query the “explicit location.” The explicit location makes queries much easier to understand and interpret.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p é “My mom is coming to visit. I need to find a hotel for her nearby”

 

Query: [Dallas hotels] Locale: English (US) User Location: Dallas,TX Explicit Location: Dallas

p é “I need a hotel for my trip to New York”

 

Query: [New York hotels] Locale: English (US) User Location: Dallas,TX

Explicit Location: New York

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sometimes the explicit location matches the user location or locale, and sometimes it doesn’t.

 

When there is an explicit location in the query, pay attention to it! People use explicit locations to indicate exactly what they are looking for.

 

12.5 Queries with Multiple Meanings

Many queries have more than one meaning. For example, the query [apple] might refer to the computer brand or the fruit. We will call these possible meanings query interpretations.

 

Dominant Interpretation: The dominant interpretation of a query is what most users mean when they type the query. Not all queries have a dominant interpretation. The dominant interpretation should be clear to you, especially after doing a little web research.

 

Common Interpretation: A common interpretation of a query is what many or some users mean when they type a query. A query can have multiple common interpretations.

 

Minor Interpretation: Sometimes you will find less common interpretations. These are interpretations that fewer users have in mind. We will call these minor interpretations.

 

  • Reasonable minor interpretations: Reasonable minor interpretations may help fewer users, but they still are helpful to have in a set of results because different users may want different things.

 

  • Unlikely minor interpretations: An unlikely minor interpretation is an interpretation that is in theory possible but is very unlikely – very few users are likely to have this in mind.

 

No chance interpretation: An interpretation so unlikely that almost no user would have this in mind. Results for no chance interpretations feel off-topic even if they match the query words. For example, almost no one wants a result about an overheated pet for the English US query [hot dog].

 

Query: [apple] Locale: English (US)

 

Note: There are many interpretations for this query; only a few are shown for the purposes of this example. Computer company Fruit Person’s name City

 

 

Dominant Interpretation Common Interpretations Unlikely Minor Interpretation

 

 

Query: [mercury] Locale: English (US)

 

Note: There are many interpretations for this query; only a few are shown for the purposes of this example.

 

 

Planet Chemical Element

Insurance company

Boat engine company

British aircraft designed during WWII

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Interpretations Reasonable Minor Interpretations

Unlikely Minor Interpretations

 

12.6 Query Meanings Can Change Over Time

 

Remember to think about the query and its current meaning as you are rating. We will assume users are looking for current information about a topic, the most recent product model, the most recent occurrence of a recurring event, etc., unless otherwise specified by the query.

 

User in 1994 User in 2004
 

 

 

 

 

Query: [George Bush]

Locale: English (US)

 

 

41st US president

p é

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [George Bush]

Locale: English (US)

 

 

 

43rd US president

p é

 

 

User in 2007 User in 2022
 

 

 

 

 

Query: [iphone] Locale: English (US)

 

 

iphone 1

p é

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [iphone] Locale: English (US)

 

 

iphone 13

p é

 

The interpretation of the query [iphone], English (US) has changed over time as new iPhone models are released. The first iPhone was introduced in 2007. Users searching for [iphone], English (US) at that time were looking for the new (at the time) first iPhone model. Most users now are looking for the most recent or upcoming iPhone model. In the future, new models will come out and the dominant interpretation will change again.

 

 

12.7 Understanding User Intent

It can be helpful to think of queries as having one or more of the following intents.

 

  • Know query, some of which are Know Simple queries
  • Do query, when the user is trying to accomplish a goal or engage in an activity
  • Website query, when the user is looking for a specific website or webpage
  • Visit-in-person query, some of which are looking for a specific business or organization, some of which are looking for a category of businesses

 

12.7.1 Know and Know Simple Queries

 

The intent of a Know query is to find information or explore a topic. Users want to Know more about something.

Know Simple queries are a special type of Know query. Know Simple queries seek a very specific answer, like a fact, diagram, etc. This answer has to be correct and complete, and can be displayed in a relatively small amount of space. As a general rule, if most people would agree on a correct answer, and it would fit in 1-2 sentences or a short list of items, the query can be called a Know Simple query.

 

Know Simple queries may be questions such as [how tall is barack obama]. Frequently, Know Simple queries do not have question words. For example, [barack obama height] has the same user intent as [how tall is barack obama], but is not in a question format.

 

Most queries are not Know Simple queries, such as:

 

  • Broad, complex, and/or in-depth informational queries that do not have a short answer
  • Ambiguous or unclear informational queries
  • Informational queries on controversial topics
  • Informational queries with no definitive “right answer”
  • Queries where different users may want different types of information, or different sources of information
  • Queries where users want to browse or explore a topic
  • Queries where users want to find inspiration or ideas related to a topic
  • Queries where users are seeking personal opinions and perspectives from real people

 

Here are some examples where the Know Simple query asks for a simple fact, which can be answered correctly and completely in a small amount of space, and the Know query answer is more complex.

 

Know Simple Query Know Query Explanation
[barack obama height] [how tall is obama]  

[barack obama]
The Know query is a broad information query and different users may be looking for different things (e.g., biography, books, social media posts, etc.).
 

[new york city population 2013]
 

[new york city]
The Know query is a broad information query and different users may be looking for different things (e.g., tourist and trip planning information, facts, photographs, history).
[who is graves disease named after]  

[graves disease]
The Know query is a broad query for medical information and different users may have different needs. There is no single “answer” for this query.
 

[macy’s store hours]
 

[macy’s gift wrap options]
The Know query is a broad query for a particular service offered by a department store, and does not have a short answer.
[what is the symbol for the element nickel] [what nickel is used for] The Know query is a broad query and there is no short, complete answer.
[who won the 2014 bcs national championship game] [who is going to win the bcs national championship game] The Know query asks for an opinion and there is no definitive answer.
 

[what is starbucks stock price]
 

[should i invest in starbucks stock]
Even though the Know query is theoretically a yes/no question, there is not a single answer that everyone would agree on.

 

Know Simple Query Know Query Explanation
 

 

 

 

[weather]
 

 

 

 

[how do people predict the weather]
The query [weather] may seem like a broad information query, but most people likely have a fairly simple informational need: to find the current or upcoming temperature, and the chance of local weather events such as rain or snow. Therefore, consider queries like [weather], [weather today], [weather tomorrow], [weather this week] to be Know Simple queries.

 

In contrast, the Know query is a broad information query and different users may be looking for different things.

 

[what is a bowl cut]
[hair styles for men with round faces] Users who issue the Know query are likely seeking inspiration for a new hair style. There is no definitive right answer for this query.
 

[what is the social security retirement age]
 

[retirement planning]
The Know query is about a complicated and situational topic. Many users would issue this query with the intent of broadly exploring the topic, and different users would be better served by different information.

 

 

12.7.2 Do Queries

 

The intent of a Do query is to accomplish a goal or engage in an activity. The goal or activity may be to download, to buy, to obtain, to be entertained by, or to interact with a website or app. Do queries may have a specific need to be immediately accomplished or they may be more open ended and involve browsing and subsequent searches to ultimately accomplish the goal.

 

Note that the line between Do and Know queries is sometimes blurry, with some queries fitting into both categories. Don’t worry about strictly differentiating between these two categories. They’re given to illustrate some big-picture patterns in user intents, and many queries do not fit neatly into one and only one of these categories.

 

Here are some examples of Do Queries.

 

Query Likely User Intent
[get my GED online] Obtain U.S. high school equivalency diploma online.
[online personality test] Take an online personality test.
[what is my bmi?] Calculate BMI (body mass index).
[pay parking ticket] Pay for a parking ticket.
[watch stranger things] Watch the TV show “Stranger Things”.
[shape of you video] Watch the music video for the song “Shape of You” by Ed Sheeran
 

[music videos]
The user did not ask for a specific music video, but this query still has a likely Do intent because the user most likely issued the query with the intent of watching at least one music video after browsing options in the search results.
 

[small bathroom organization ideas]
Browse the web for ideas on ways to organize a small bathroom

 

Note: This is an open-ended Do query where different kinds of content could be helpful. Some users may want to browse images and video to find visual inspiration, some may want to read how-to guides, and others may be interested in both.

 

12.7.3 Website Queries

 

The intent of a Website query is to locate a specific website or webpage that users have requested. This single webpage is called the target of the query.

 

One type of Website query is a URL Query, which can be:

  • Exact, perfectly-formed, working URLs, such as [http://www.ibm.com] or [ibm.com] or [ibm.com].
  • Imperfect URL queries: Queries that look like URL queries, but are not “working URLs”. These URLs do not load if you type or paste them into your browser address Even so, we believe users have a specific page in mind.

 

Here are some examples.

 

Query Likely User Intent
[reddit login] View the login page for Reddit.
[tiktok] View the TikTok website.
[yahoo mail] View the Yahoo Mail website.
[walmart.com] View the Walmart website.
[feathermobility.com feather 13.5 lbs. wheelchair] View the Feather 13.5 lbs. wheelchair product page on the Feather Chair website.

 

12.7.4 Visit-in-Person Queries and User Location

 

People use search engines to look for Visit-in-Person information, such as finding nearby coffee shops, gas stations, ATMs, restaurants, etc.

 

Some queries clearly “ask” for nearby information or nearby results (e.g., businesses, organizations, other nearby places). Some queries are not asking for nearby information or nearby results. Here are some examples.

 

Queries with Visit-in-Person Intent Query with Non-Visit-in-Person Intent
 

 

 

 

 

p é “I want to find a car repair shop.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

p é “How tall is Mount Everest?”

Query: [car repair shop] Locale: English (US) Query: [how tall is mt everest] Locale: English (US)
 

 

p é “I need to find a gas station right away!”

 

 

 

p é “I would like to take an IQ test online.”

Query: [gas stations] Locale: English (US) Query: [iq test] Locale: English (US)
More examples: [pizza], [yoga class], [grocery stores], [movie showtimes], [car repair], [dentists], [bank of america atm locations], [library near me] More examples: [boston red sox], [scrabble cheat], [definition of sedentary], [aapl], [beyonce], [minecraft], [small dog breeds], [dance videos], [oscars], [silly jokes], [bank of america login]

 

And some queries could go either way. Some users may want nearby results and others may not.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p é “I want to go to a Walmart near me.”

 

Query: [walmart] Locale: English (US)

p é “I want to shop online on the Walmart website”

 

Query: [walmart] Locale: English (US)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Here are some examples of queries with both visit-in-person and non-visit-in-person intent:

 

  • [hotels]
  • [post office]
  • [h&m]
  • [library]
  • [bank of america]
  • [the gap]

 

Sometimes, the user location can change our understanding of the query. For users close to Austin, Texas, the query [verbena] could have two different interpretations: a popular restaurant named Verbena or the plant verbena.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p é “What is the address of Verbena?”

 

Query: [verbena] Locale: English (US)

User Location: Austin,TX

p é “I want to learn more about the plant verbena.”

 

Query: [verbena] Locale: English (US)

User Location: Austin, TX

 

In most other user locations, there is no restaurant (or anything else) named Verbena and there is just one interpretation of the query [verbena]: the plant. The Austin restaurant is not well-known outside of Austin, TX.

 

 

 

 

 

 

p é “I want to learn more about the plant verbena.”

 

Query: [verbena] Locale: English (US) User Location: Flint, MI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Use your common sense when thinking about queries and whether they have possible visit-in-person intent.

 

12.7.5 Queries with Multiple User Intents

 

Many queries have more than one likely user intent. Please use your judgment when determining if a particular intent is reasonable for queries with multiple intents. Because so many people search for so many things, err on the side of considering interpretations and intents to be reasonable and doing query research as needed.

 

 

Query Examples of Reasonable User Intent Examples of Unlikely User Intent
 

 

[harvard]
Depending on the user need and location, users may want to visit the official homepage (Website), get directions (Visit-in-Person), or learn more information about the school such as the application process or history, see recent news, or updates on sporting events (Know). This query is very broad. Different people may be looking for different things. However, it’s fairly unlikely that someone is looking for a one specific Harvard course such as “The Science and Psychology of Music” for the broad query [harvard].
 

 

[walmart]
Users may want to go to a nearby Walmart

(Visit-in-Person) or view the homepage to shop online (Website). Some users may want to learn more information about the company or see recent news, social media posts, etc (Know).

This query is very broad. Different people may be looking for different things. However, it’s fairly unlikely that someone is looking for a news article on Walmart’s charitable donations from 2001 for the query [walmart].

 

12.8 Understanding Result Blocks

 

The following sections contain examples of different types of queries and results.

 

12.8.1 Web Search Result Block Examples

 

Web Search Result Blocks typically have a title link, a URL and a “snippet” of text describing the page. For many queries, Web Search Result Blocks are the most helpful type of result.

 

Query and User Intent Web Search Result Block
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [cuisinart food processor reviews]

 

User Intent: This is a Know query. The user wants to find recent reviews of Cuisinart food processors.

 

Result: This is a Web Search Result Block that has a link to a landing page with Cuisinart reviews.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [broadway tickets]

 

User Intent: This is a Know query or Do query. The user wants to search prices and/or purchase tickets to a Broadway show in New York City.

 

12.8.2 Special Content Result Block Examples

 

Special Content Result Blocks (SCRBs) appear in the search results page, along with Web Search Result Blocks.

 

Special Content Result Blocks are designed to show content directly to users on the search results page. From working calculators to playable videos to interactive weather information, these results help users immediately get information or content. Some SCRBs may also have links to landing pages.

 

Important: Please assume that any interactive features work and function properly. Some notes:

 

  • All result blocks are “screenshots” or images of search results with prominent links enabled. Unfortunately, a screenshot or image of an interactive result block will not function as it would for a real For the purpose of rating, please assume that interactive result blocks do function as intended. Try to interact with the result block as some links, buttons, or other features may work.

 

  • There may be a delay between when the rating task is created and when you actually rate the block, causing some information in special content result blocks to be a few hours or even days out of date. Stock price or weather informational blocks are designed to give users extremely current and timely However, due to a delay in rating time, the information may no longer be accurate. Don’t penalize a special content result block for being out of date. Assume that the blocks show current information for users, unless instructed otherwise.

 

Query and User Intent Special Content Result Block
 

 

 

Query: [weather]

 

User Location: Chicago, Illinois

 

User Intent: This is a Know Simple query since users have a fairly simple informational need: find the current temperature and chance of rain or snow. The user wants to know the weather for the User Location.

 

Note: Assume the block shows current information for users.

 

Query and User Intent Special Content Result Block
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [emma stone movies]

 

User Intent: This is a Know query. The user wants to get information on movies with Emma Stone.

 

Result: In this result block, users can immediately see some popular movies starring Emma Stone, with an option to click on the links to learn more about each movie. Users can also swipe to see a list of more movies.

 

 

 

Query: [calories in a banana]

 

User Intent: This is a Know Simple query. The user wants to find out how many calories are in a banana.

 

Query and User Intent Special Content Result Block
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [NFL scores]

 

User Intent: This is a Know query. The user wants to find the most recent National Football League scores.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [coldplay fix you video]

 

User Intent: This is a Do query. The user wants to watch the music video for the song “Fix You” by Coldplay.

 

Result: By clicking on this result block, users can play the music video for the song, learn more about the artist/album, etc.

 

 

Query and User Intent Special Content Result Block
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [what is the tallest tree]

 

User Intent: This is a Know Simple query. The user wants to know what type of tree is the tallest.

 

Part 3: Needs Met Rating Guideline

13.0 Rating Using the Needs Met Scale

There are many different kinds of queries and results, but the process of rating is the same: Needs Met rating tasks ask you to focus on user needs and think about how helpful and satisfying the result is for the users.

 

This is what the Needs Met rating slider looks like:

 

 

 

 

Rating Description
Fully Meets (FullyM) A special rating category, which only applies to queries with clear intent to find one specific result and the corresponding specific result the user is looking for.
Highly Meets (HM) A very helpful result for any dominant, common or reasonable minor query interpretation/user intent.
Moderately Meets (MM) A helpful result for any dominant, common or reasonable minor query interpretation/user intent.
Slightly Meets (SM) A less helpful result for a dominant, common or reasonable minor interpretation/user intent OR a helpful result for an unlikely minor query interpretation/user intent.
Fails to Meet (FailsM) A result that completely fails to meet the needs of all or almost all users. For example, the result may be off-topic for the query or address a no chance interpretation of the query.

 

Use in-between ratings if you think the rating of a result falls between two labels. You can either drag the slider or click on the point that you want the slider to land on.

 

13.1 Rating Result Blocks: Block Content and Landing Pages

 

For Needs Met rating, you will assign a rating to each result. Each result includes the content inside the result block and landing pages associated with the result.

 

Which part of the result do you rate? If a rating task specifically asks you to rate the Landing Page Needs Met or the Block Content Needs Met of each result, then you should follow the guidance in Section 13.1.1. Unless these specific versions of Needs Met ratings are requested, you should follow the guidance below:

 

Type of Block What to Rate
 

Special Content Result Block (SCRB)

 

Note: Assume that interactive result blocks function as intended. Try to interact with the result block as some links, buttons, or other features in your rating task may work.

The content inside this type of block should always play a large role in your rating.

 

Some Special Content Result Blocks may have links to landing pages. In these cases, think about whether a user would click on the link in order to satisfy their user need.

 

● If most users would not click, rate the Special Content Result Block based on the block content alone.

● If some or many users would click, you may consider the helpfulness of the landing page(s) in addition to the content in the block. In this case, both need to be helpful to justify a high rating.

Web Search Result Block A click is required, and you should evaluate the landing page to assign a rating.

 

For example, think about the query [what does love mean].

 

Result Block Query: [what does love mean] Rating
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Special Content Result Block

 

 

 

 

 

Most users would probably not click on the Special Content Result Block, because the block contains a large amount of helpful content and has no obvious landing page link associated with it.

 

Therefore, base your rating on the content inside the block itself.

 

 

 

Web Search Result Block

In this case, users would have to click on the web search result in order to get an answer to the question.

 

Therefore, base your rating on the content of the landing page.

 

Here are some examples of Special Content Result Blocks where the block should be rated primarily on the content inside the block itself. As always, please use your judgment.

 

Query and Special Content Result Block
 

Query: [utopia animal hospital]

 

Query: [chicago weather]

 

Query: [calories in a banana]

 

Query: [how to find security code on visa]

 

Query: [how did Lincoln die]

 

Query: [movies san francisco]

 

 

Note: The guidance in this section specifically applies to Needs Met ratings. For Special Content Result Blocks that have landing pages, you may or may not also be asked to provide PQ ratings. In these cases, your PQ rating should always be based on the landing page. Please refer to Section 14.0 for more about the relationship between Needs Met and Page Quality ratings.

 

13.1.1 Landing Page Needs Met Ratings and Block Content Needs Met Ratings

 

In most cases, you should follow the instructions above when assigning Needs Met ratings. In some cases, though, a rating task may include special instructions that ask you to assign Landing Page Needs Met or Block Content Needs Met ratings. In these cases, follow the instructions below:

 

Type of Needs Met Rating What to Rate
 

Landing Page Needs Met

Landing Page Needs Met ratings should be based exclusively on the landing page(s) links in the result block. This applies to both SCRBs and Web Search Result Blocks. The content that appears inside the result block should not factor into Landing Page Needs Met ratings.
 

 

 

 

 

Block Content Needs Met

Block Content Needs Met ratings should be based exclusively on the content inside the result block. This applies to both SCRBs and Web Search Result Blocks. Do not click through to any landing pages when rating Block Content Needs Met; landing page content should not factor into Block Content Needs Met ratings.

 

● For Web Search Result Blocks, only consider the extent to which the page title, snippet, and any visual content within the block would directly address user need.

● For SCRBs, only consider the extent to which the content within the block would directly address user need.

Needs Met Follow the instructions in Section 13.1 for standard Needs Met ratings.

 

13.2 Fully Meets (FullyM)

 

Fully Meets is a special rating category which only applies when all of the following are true:

 

  • The query interpretation and user intent is specific, clear, and
  • There is a specific website, a specific webpage, a specific know-simple fact or other specific result that all or almost all users in the rating locale and user location are looking for.
  • All or almost all users in the rating locale and user location would be completely satisfied by the

 

Most queries cannot have a Fully Meets result. Most queries do not specify a single website or webpage. Most queries are not specific enough to have a single, know-simple fact as a comprehensive answer. For most queries, different people may want different types of results. For many queries, a single user may need to see many different results.

 

You will need to use your judgment to decide whether a result block can Fully Meet the user need. Here are some scenarios when the Fully Meets rating is appropriate:

 

  • The user is clearly looking for a specific webpage or website and the result block with the specific webpage or website Fully Meets the user’s need.
  • All or almost all users in the rating locale or user location who search for this query would be looking for the same, specific fact or piece of information. The result block provides the information thoroughly, accurately, and clearly, and is from a trustworthy source acceptable for all or almost all users. Before using the Fully Meets rating for queries seeking a very specific fact or piece of information, you must check for accuracy and confirm that the information is supported by expert consensus where such consensus exists.

 

Be conservative when using the Fully Meets rating. Even queries that seem to have a single right “answer” may benefit from more perspectives to satisfy all or almost all users. When in doubt, use a lower rating.

 

Note: If a result block is very close to being fully satisfying, but the block alone may not be sufficient in order to fully satisfy all or almost all users, a rating of Highly Meets or Highly Meets+ may be appropriate.

 

 

 

 

13.2.1 Examples of Fully Meets (FullyM) Result Blocks

 

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Fully Meets Explanation
 

Query: [amazon]

 

User Intent: Go to the Amazon website.

 

 

The query has clear intent to go to the amazon.com website.

While there may be other interpretations for the query, the dominant one is by far the website.

 

 

 

Query: [target website]

 

User Intent: Go to the Target website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The query has clear intent to go to target.com.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Fully Meets Explanation
 

Query: [titanic imdb]

 

User Intent: Go to the IMDb page for Titanic.

 

 

 

 

The query has clear intent to go to the IMDb page for Titanic.

 

Query: [www.netflix.coom]

 

User Intent: Go to the streaming website, Netflix.

 

 

 

Even though this is an imperfect URL query, it’s clear the user wants to go to the Netflix website.

 

Query: [cnn health]

 

User Intent: Go to the Health section of cnn.com.

 

 

 

The query has clear intent to go to the Health section of the cnn.com webpage.

Query: [cnn]

 

User Intent: Go to the CNN website.

 

 

The query has clear intent to access CNN news and content. The website has the content the user is searching for, and fully satisfies the user intent.
Query: [lebron james stats basketball- reference.com]

 

User Intent: Go to the player statistics page for LeBron James on a specific website.

 

 

 

The query has clear intent to go to the player statistics page for LeBron James on a specific website,

basketball-reference.com.

 

 

 

Query: [chef chu phone number]

 

User Location: Los Altos, California

 

User Intent: Find the phone number for the restaurant called Chef Chu’s.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chef Chu’s is a Chinese restaurant located in the user location. This result block shows the correct phone number with the option to call the number directly on the device—it Fully Meets the user intent.

 

Note: You must check for accuracy before using the Fully Meets rating. You can verify that the phone number is correct by checking Chef Chu’s official website.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Fully Meets Explanation
 

Query: [how to find Mac OS version]

 

User Intent: Find out how to locate the OS version of a Mac.

 

 

 

 

The result block displays the complete and correct answer prominently in the result block, in a way that is easy for users to read. The result block Fully Meets the user need.

 

 

 

 

Query: [new york city population 2012]

 

User Intent: Find the population of New York City back in 2012.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The result block displays the complete and correct answer prominently in the result block, in a way that is easy for users to read—it Fully Meets the user need.

 

Query: [what is the weather forecast for today]

 

User Location:

Mountain View, California

 

User Intent: Find weather forecast information for the current day in Mountain View, California.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The result block displays the complete and correct answer prominently in the result block in a way that is easy for users to read. This result Fully Meets the user need.

 

Remember that we consider weather queries, like this one, to be a Know Simple query.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [what country is mount fuji in]

 

User Intent: Find the country in which Mount Fuji is located.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The result block displays the complete and correct answer prominently in the result block, in a way that is easy for users to read. The result block Fully Meets the user need.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Fully Meets Explanation
 

 

Query: [chevron at shoreline and middlefield]

 

User Location: Mountain View, California

 

User Intent: Find the specific gas station specified by the user in order to visit the location in person.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The intent is to visit the specific gas station specified by the user. This result block is for the specified Chevron location, with information to visit this location in person.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [1600 pennsylvania ave washington dc]

 

User Location: Bakersville, California

 

User Intent: Find a map, directions, information about what is located at this address, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This block contains a map with the queried address, link to get directions, and specifies the landmark at the well-known address on the map (“The White House”).

 

It’s not unusual to search for an address (or business) that is far from the user location. Here, the user has explicitly asked for a specific address in a far away place, and this result is very satisfying. For a query this specific, the user location does not change the rating.

 

Note: A range is included because some users would be fully satisfied with this result, while some users would want more information (e.g., photos, a brief description).

 

13.2.2 Examples of Queries that Cannot Have Fully Meets Results

 

There are some queries that cannot have a Fully Meets result. Here are some examples.

 

Type of Query Example No Fully Meets Result: Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

Broad queries where no single result could fully satisfy all users

 

 

 

 

[knitting]
This is a broad informational query. Knitting is an activity anyone can do and that anyone can create a website for. Different users may want different types of content: videos, instructions, patterns, etc. There is no one official source for knitting information and no one result could satisfy most users.

Therefore, no Fully Meets result is possible for this query.

Famous names

 

e.g., [barack obama]

This is a broad informational query and it is impossible to know exactly what the user is looking for.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ambiguous queries without a clear user intent or dominant interpretation

 

 

 

[ada]
There is no dominant interpretation for this query. The following entities are all common interpretations: Americans with Disabilities Act, American Dental Association, and American Diabetes Association. While each interpretation has an official homepage, none is Fully Meets since there is no dominant interpretation.
 

 

 

 

Non-famous people names e.g., [sam wen]

Queries for people’s names can be tricky. Many or most people queries do not have a dominant interpretation. Even unusual sounding name queries may not have a dominant interpretation. For example, the queries [sam wen], [tran nguyen], and [david mease] can have no Fully Meets result because there are multiple people with each of these names, and it is not clear that most users are looking for any one particular individual.

 

13.3 Highly Meets (HM)

 

A rating of Highly Meets is assigned to very helpful results for any dominant, common, or reasonable minor interpretation or user intent of the query.

 

Highly Meets results are highly satisfying and a good “fit” for reasonable interpretations and intents. In addition, they often have some of the following characteristics (depending on the query):

 

  • Entertaining or enjoyable for queries with a reasonable entertainment intent
  • Representative of the opinions, perspectives and experience of real people for queries with no single right answer
  • For informational queries, very helpful results that, for example:
    • Are easy to understand the content, e.g., helpful images or videos, an easy to understand summary
    • Provide in-depth or insightful content, g., a deep dive explanation, an expert analysis
  • For queries that benefit from recently created content, fresh results that provide up-to-date content on “what everyone is talking about right now” g., breaking news on a topic or the latest viral video or a hot new fashion trend

 

Highly Meets results may be any type of content: articles, short form or long form video, images, social media posts, forum discussions, etc. There is no length requirement for Highly Meets results. Sometimes what makes a result satisfying is that it is short and easy to understand. Other results may be very satisfying because of the depth and richness of content. For some queries, comprehensiveness may be critically important, such as queries about truly complex topics or YMYL queries for which a short answer could be misleading.

 

Accuracy is required for Highly Meets informational results. Highly Meets information pages on YMYL topics must be accurate and trustworthy. Highly Meets medical and scientific information pages must represent well-established scientific/medical consensus unless the user is clearly seeking an alternative viewpoint.

 

A query can have many Highly Meets results. Search engines should strive to provide a diverse set of Highly Meets results from a variety of websites in a variety of content types from a variety of people and perspectives. This is especially important for queries with no single, “right answer”, subjective queries, queries with multiple intents and interpretations, queries seeking opinions and perspectives, and queries simply looking to browse or explore the web.

 

For most queries, Highly Meets is the highest possible rating a result can receive. Results rated Highly Meets represent the most helpful content available for a given query interpretation and user intent. Some queries have several Highly Meets results because there is a variety of very helpful content available on the internet that addresses reasonable query interpretations and user intents. Other queries may have no Highly Meets results at all because very helpful content doesn’t exist on the internet or search engines are unable to find it. The standard for Highly Meets is very high.

 

 

13.3.1 Examples of Highly Meets (HM) Result Blocks

 

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Highly Meets Explanation
 

 

Query: [trader joes]

 

User Location: Charlotte, North Carolina

 

User Intent: There are two possible user intents: most users probably want to visit a nearby location or go to the website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This result shows a complete list of all three locations in the Charlotte area, with information that is very helpful for users who want to visit the store.

 

Note: This result block is not Fully Meets because users who want to go to the website to see coupons, promotions, etc. would have to see additional results.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Highly Meets Explanation
 

Query: [trader joes]

 

User Location: Charlotte, North Carolina

 

User Intent: There are two possible user intents: most users probably want to visit a nearby location or go to the website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is the official website for Trader Joe’s, which has information on the businesses’ stores, promotions, recipes, news, etc.

 

Note: This result block is not Fully Meets because users who want information to visit the store have to do a bit of work to find that information—it is not immediately available.

Query: [museum of modern art]

 

User Location:

Manhattan, New York

 

User Intent: There are two possible user intents: most users probably want to visit the museum (note that the user is located in NYC where the museum is located) or go to the website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is the museum’s official website and has very helpful information about exhibits, membership, the store, etc.

 

Note: This result block is not Fully Meets because users who want information to visit the museum have to do a bit of work to find that information—it is not immediately available.

Query: [museum of modern art]

 

User Location:

Manhattan, New York

 

User Intent: There are two possible user intents: most users probably want to visit the museum (note that the user is located in NYC where the museum is located) or go to the website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The result block shows information about the museum, and is especially helpful for users who want to visit the museum.

 

Note: This result block is not Fully Meets— even though there is a website link, it is not very satisfying for users who want to go to the website because it is not as informative as a web search result block with a title, snippet, and URL.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Highly Meets Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

Query: [belmont library]

 

User Location: Belmont, Massachusetts

 

User Intent: Find information about this library or go to the website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There is only one library in the user location (Belmont, Massachusetts). The result block shows information about the library, and is especially helpful for users who want to visit the location.

 

Note: This result block is not Fully Meets— even though there is a website link, it is not very satisfying for users who want to go to the website because it is not as informative as a web search result block with a title, snippet, and URL.

 

 

 

 

Query: [belmont library]

 

User Location: Belmont, California

 

User Intent: Find information about this library or go to the website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There is only one library in the user location (Belmont, California). The result block shows information about the library, and is especially helpful for users who want to visit the location.

 

Note: This result block is not Fully Meets— even though there is a website link, it is not very satisfying for users who want to go to the website because it is not as informative as a web search result block with a title, snippet, and URL.

 

 

Query: [celine dion]

 

User Intent: Learn more about the singer Celine Dion.

 

 

 

 

The user intent is too broad to have a Fully Meets result.

However, this is Celine Dion’s official website and has a lot of content including recent news, show information, music, photos, videos, etc. This is a very helpful result.

Query: [manresa reviews]

 

User Location: San Jose, California

 

User Intent: Find reviews for this restaurant located in Los Gatos, California.

 

 

 

 

The LP for this web result has 127 reviews for the restaurant. The first three reviews show automatically, and then you can click to see more. This is a very helpful result.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Highly Meets Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [nearby coffee shops]

 

User Location:

Washington, D.C.

 

User Intent: Find coffee shops near the user location.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The intent is to find coffee shops near the specific user location, represented by the blue dot on the map.

 

This result block has a very satisfying list of nearby, popular, and prominent options within a few miles of the specific location. This kind of block is especially helpful for users who want to visit the business in person. Note that these blocks are interactive—clicking on a coffee shop will give options to call the business, get directions, read reviews, etc.

 

Note: This result is not Fully Meets— even though this a very helpful result block for users seeking nearby coffee shops, it is unlikely that every user would be fully satisfied with this specific list given the abundance of coffee shops near the user location.

 

Query: [what country is mount fuji in]

 

User Intent: Find the country in which Mount Fuji is located.

 

 

 

This is a specific Know Simple query. The LP for this web result provides the answer to the query along with a lot of information about the mountain. While the answer can also be found in the description of the web result, it is not displayed prominently.
 

 

Query: [broadway tickets]

 

User Location: New York, New York

 

User Intent: Research prices and/or purchase tickets to a Broadway show.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The LP for this web result offers many Broadway tickets for sale. This is a very helpful result.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Highly Meets Explanation
 

 

 

Query: [kids backpacks]

 

User Intent: Research prices and/or purchase backpacks for kids.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The LP for this web result offers many kids backpacks for sale. The company is well-known for manufacturing and selling high quality backpacks for kids of different ages. There is a lot of product information and many user reviews for each backpack, in addition to helpful filter options.

 

Query: [poison ivy]

 

User Intent: Find pictures of poison ivy plants, information about how to treat poison ivy, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The LP for this web result provides a lot of helpful information about poison ivy. This is a very helpful result.

 

Query: [michael jordan]

 

User Intent: Find information, news, images, etc. about Michael Jordan.

 

 

 

The LP of this web result is a Wikipedia article about Michael Jordan. This is a very helpful result.

 

 

Query: [around the world tutorial soccer]

 

User Intent: Find a tutorial of how to do the ‘around the world’ soccer trick

 

 

 

 

 

 

This result is a very helpful video tutorial demonstrating the move, with voiceover instructions and tips.

 

 

Query: [trestle bridge]

 

User Intent: The user wants to understand what a trestle bridge is or learn more information about them (e.g., what it looks like, how they are built, types of materials,

well-known examples, etc.).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seeing images of trestle bridges is very helpful in understanding this type of bridge. In this case, “a picture is worth a thousand words”, meaning that a picture may be more helpful than a text description due to the unique design of the bridge.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Highly Meets Explanation
 

 

Query: [invasive species]

 

User Intent: Find more information about invasive species.

 

 

 

 

 

The result block has a good summary of what invasive species are. Though additional information like examples, impact, etc. would be helpful, overall this is a very helpful result.

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [verbena]

 

User Location: Austin, TX

 

User Intent: Find information about the spice or the restaurant in Austin.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For users in Austin, TX, the query [verbena] could have two different interpretations: a popular restaurant named Verbena or the plant verbena. Because the user is located in Austin, many users are probably looking for the restaurant.

However, it is not completely clear because some users may want to find information about the plant. This result about the restaurant has satisfying information for users who want to visit it—the result Highly Meets the most likely user need.

 

 

Query: [kristen wiig]

 

User Intent: Find more information about the actress, comedian, writer, and producer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is a fan site dedicated to Kristen Wiig. The website has comprehensive info including over 50,000 pictures and 300 video clips, interviews, articles, and more. This is a very helpful result.

Query: [emily blunt]

 

User Intent: Find biographical information (e.g., filmography) or current news/celebrity gossip about Emily Blunt.

 

 

This result shows popular movies starring the actress. This is a very helpful result for users looking for her filmography, a reasonable intent for the query. Highly Meets is an appropriate rating for this result.
 

 

 

Query: [1969 moon landing]

 

User Intent: Find accurate and authoritative information about this historical event.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The LP for this web result contains information about the Apollo 11 moon landing on the official website of NASA, which was the organization that oversaw this mission in 1969. The MC has a lot of helpful information and content, including a detailed summary, video footage, and images of the moon landing that users can view and explore. This is a very helpful result.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Highly Meets Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [jennifer aniston]

 

User Intent: Find images, recent news, information, etc. about Jennifer Aniston.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is a broad query for an actress. Different users may be looking for different things.

 

This result shows recent news about Jennifer Aniston. The articles are timely (at the time this was written) and relatively interesting, and not just common everyday news about the actress. This is a very helpful result for a reasonable intent.

Query: [mentos and coke death]

 

User Intent: Find accurate information about a rumor that a mixture of Mentos and Coca-Cola can cause death, which was spread on the Internet in 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

This LP is on a well-known fact-checking and debunking website. The page calls this story “False”, then provides a

credible explanation of how the authors came to that conclusion, including history of similar urban legends. This is a very helpful result.

Query: [avatar the way of water movie review]

 

User Intent: Find reviews of the 2022 film Avatar: The Way of Water.

 

 

This discussion post includes snippets of reviews for the queried film by various sources. Various participants have also added to the discussion by commenting on the post. This is a very helpful result.
 

Query: [seattle, washington]

 

User Intent: Find information, news, maps, etc. related to Seattle, Washington.

 

 

 

 

The result shows a map of Seattle, Washington and clicking on the map brings up a more detailed map. This is a very helpful result for a reasonable user intent.

 

13.4 Moderately Meets (MM)

 

A rating of Moderately Meets is assigned to helpful results for any reasonable interpretation or user intent of the query, including reasonable minor interpretations and intents.

 

Moderately Meets results have fewer valuable attributes than Highly Meets results. Moderately Meets results should still “fit” the query, but they are less satisfying than Highly Meets results. For example:

 

  • Moderately Meets results may be less representative of the opinions, perspectives and experience of real people for queries with no single right answer
  • For informational queries, Moderately Meets results might have content that is slightly harder to understand than Highly Meets results
  • Moderately Meets results may be a slightly out of date for queries that benefit from recently created content

 

A query can have many Moderately Meets results. Moderately Meets results exist in all formats (video, audio, text, image) and on many types of websites: professional websites, corporate websites, forums, social media, etc.

 

Moderately Meets is an acceptable rating if you see aspects of the result that are Highly Meets but other aspects seem

Slightly Meets.

 

There is nothing “wrong” with Moderately Meets results. Moderately Meets results are not out-of-date or inaccurate.

Moderately Meets results are generally average to good.

 

13.4.1 Examples of Moderately Meets (MM) Result Blocks

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Moderately Meets Explanation
 

 

 

Query: [emperor penguin]

 

User intent: Find information, photos, or videos about emperor penguins.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is a cute short (14 second) video of a baby emperor penguin walking to a fully-grown emperor penguin.

 

This is a helpful result for the reasonable interpretation and intent to find cute photos or videos of emperor penguins. However, the result is not very satisfying or very helpful for this query. Moderately Meets is appropriate.

 

 

Query: [where is virginia in the us]

 

User Intent: Find where the state of Virginia is located in the U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

This is a helpful result for the reasonable interpretation and intent to know what states border Virginia. However, the result is not very helpful as it lacks visual information (e.g., map).

Moderately Meets is appropriate.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Moderately Meets Explanation
 

Query: [kristen wiig]

 

User Intent: Find more information about the actress, comedian, writer, and producer.

 

 

 

This is a helpful result as it is Kristen Wiig’s official website. However, the result is not very helpful because there is little content and has not been updated in years. Moderately Meets is appropriate.

 

13.5 Slightly Meets (SM)

 

A rating of Slightly Meets is assigned to results that are less helpful for a reasonable query interpretation or user intent. A rating of Slightly Meets is also assigned to a helpful result for an unlikely query interpretation or intent or be related to the user’s information need without directly addressing the core of the need. Slightly Meets results may have some aspect that prevents a higher rating, for example they may have outdated information. Slightly Meets results may not fully address an important part of the query or otherwise be less helpful for users.

 

A query can have many Slightly Meets results. Slightly Meets results exist in all formats (video, audio, text, image) and on many types of websites: professional websites, corporate websites, forums, social media, etc.

 

Often there is nothing “wrong” with Slightly Meets results – they may simply be a less helpful “fit” for the particular query in the rating task. A Slightly Meets result for one query may be a Highly Meets result for a different query.

 

Important: Many users decide which result to click or tap on based on the content in the result block, such as the title of the web result on the search results page. (Note that these titles usually come from webpages.) A result with a very misleading or exaggerated title should be rated Slightly Meets or lower, due to the poor user experience that occurs when the landing page does not match the expectation of the user when clicking or tapping on the result.

 

13.5.1 Examples of Slightly Meets (SM) Result Blocks

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Slightly Meets Explanation
Query: [britney spears]

 

User Intent: Find information about Britney Spears (e.g., current news, pictures).

 

 

The LP of this web result has a 2006 article about Britney Spears filing for divorce. This is very old, stale news, making this result less helpful for users.
Query: [honda odyssey]

 

User Intent: We will assume that users are interested in the current Honda Odyssey model, unless specified otherwise.

 

 

 

Although the LP has comprehensive information from a reputable source, the information is about the 2010 Honda Odyssey. This information would be considered stale for the query today, making this result less helpful for users.
Query: [hot dog]

 

User Intent: Find information about hot dogs, such as recipes or nutrition information.

 

 

The LP of this web result is about the movie “Hot Dog,” an obscure film which came out in 1984.

Even though the landing page has good content, this is an unlikely minor interpretation of this query.

 

Query: [what type of sharks live in rivers]

 

User Intent: Find information about what types of sharks live in rivers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This result block does not contain enough information to be fully satisfying and mentions only one type of shark. This is not a very helpful result.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Slightly Meets Explanation
 

 

 

 

Query: [ibm]

 

 

 

 

 

 

User Intent: Go to the IBM website or find information about the company. This block contains images of the logo for IBM. These images are not a very helpful result for an unlikely minor intent of the query.

 

13.6 Fails to Meet (FailsM)

 

A rating of Fails to Meet should be assigned to results that fails to meet the needs of all or almost all users. Fails to Meet results have some aspect that causes them to be unhelpful for the query, such as a lack of attention to an aspect of the query (or user location) that is critical for satisfying the user intent. Fails to Meet may also be used for results that have incorrect or very outdated information. Fails to Meet results may be helpful for a no chance interpretation. Fails to Meet results may be off-topic for any query interpretation.

 

Search results should never surprise people with unpleasant, upsetting, offensive, or disturbing content. For this reason, all of the following types of content should be rated Fails to Meet if it is clear that the user is not looking for such content:

 

 

 

 

13.6.1 Examples of Fails to Meet (FailsM) Result Blocks

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Fails to Meet Explanation
Query: [mike]

 

User Location: Eustis, Florida

 

User Intent: Find information about something related to Mike.

 

Note: For this query, it is unlikely users want to go anywhere in person.

 

 

 

 

 

This is a broad query and it is unclear exactly what the user is looking for.

 

This result block shows

visit-in-person information for two businesses that contain the name Mike. However, the query is very broad and it is very unlikely these businesses are what users seek given the query.

 

 

Query: [united 656]

 

User Intent: Find information about flight 656 operated by United Airlines (e.g., whether the flight is on time, what gate it is departing from).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This result shows information for a church, an event venue, and the closest airport. However, users clearly want to know details about a specific flight, and there is absolutely no information in the block about the flight. This result Fails to Meet the needs of the user.

Query: [german cars]

 

User Intent: Find information about German cars or go to the official homepage of a German automaker.

 

 

This LP is the homepage of Subaru, a Japanese car company, not a German car company.

 

This result completely Fails to Meet the needs of the user.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Fails to Meet Explanation
Query: [company to get rid of the possum in my attic]

 

User Location:

Naperville, Illinois

 

User Intent: Find a company to trap and remove a possum from the attic.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This LP is the homepage of a pest control company in Australia. U.S. users would need a U.S. company to take care of this problem. There is a mismatch between the page and the locale that makes this result helpful for no users—it completely Fails to Meet the needs of the user.
Query: [starting jets quarterback 2001]

 

User Intent: Find the name of the starting quarterback for the New York Jets football team in 2001.

 

 

 

Although this is a trustworthy website for information about NFL football, this LP does not contain the information requested by the user. This result Fails to Meet the needs of the user.
 

 

Query: [doctor salary]

 

User Location: San Francisco, California

 

User Intent: Find information about doctor salaries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The answer in this block is about the cost of education, not salary, which is misleading and doesn’t answer the user’s query.

 

 

 

Query: [who invented stairs]

 

User Intent: Find out about the origin of stairs.

 

 

 

 

The answer provided in this result block is factually inaccurate. Stairs have been a common architectural feature of buildings, pathways, outdoor structures, etc. since long before 1948, and they were not invented by a person named Werner Bösendörfer.

Query: [batman]

 

User Location: Anaheim, California

 

User Intent: Find information about the fictional superhero that appears in American comic books, movies, and television shows.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It is extremely unlikely (potentially a no chance interpretation) that this query is looking for information on a city in Turkey called Batman, given that the user is located in the United States. This result Fails to Meet the needs of the user.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Fails to Meet Explanation
 

 

Query: [weather paris, texas]

 

User Location: Paris, Texas

 

User Intent: Find current weather information for Paris, Texas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This result completely fails to satisfy the user intent, which is to find weather information for Paris, Texas, and not Paris, France.

 

 

 

 

Query: [go kart for sale]

 

User Location:

Warrington, Pennsylvania

 

User Intent: Find go karts for sale in the Warrington, Pennsylvania area.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This result block shows a go kart arcade in Warrington, Pennsylvania, and two other go kart arcades in the surrounding area. These arcades are places to go ride go karts, not purchase them, so the result completely Fails to Meet the user intent.

 

 

Query: [ralphs]

 

User Location: San Clemente, California

 

User Intent: There are two possible user intents: most users probably want to visit a nearby Ralphs location or go to the website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ralphs is a nationwide supermarket chain. These locations are all in San Diego, California, which is a major city south of the user location (about 60 miles away). These results are too far to be helpful.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Fails to Meet Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

Query: [amazon]

 

User Location: Austin, Texas

 

User Intent: Go to the Amazon website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Users issuing this query want to go to the Amazon website.

 

Showing information about how to visit or call the corporate office for an online company would not be helpful. At the time this example was written, the Amazon corporate office was not open to the public; very, very few people ever go to an Amazon corporate office. If someone needed to go to the office for an interview or business visit, they would need to get that information from someone at the company or would use a more specific query.

Query: [what is the closest large city]

 

User Location: Myrtle Beach, South Carolina

 

User Intent: Find the closest large city to Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.

 

 

 

 

 

A news result is completely unhelpful for this query. This result Fails to Meet the needs of the user.

Query: [australian open mens singles result 2008]

 

User Intent: Find a page that displays the 2008 men’s singles result for this tennis tournament.

 

 

 

This LP is about the 2004 Australian Open, not the 2008 Australian Open. It does not pay attention to an aspect of the query that is important for satisfying user intent (i.e., 2008). The result Fails to Meet the user intent.
Query: [tooth loss five years old]

 

User Intent: Find information about tooth loss in a five-year-old child.

 

 

This LP has information about tooth loss in pike fish and has the words “five years old” on the page. This result Fails to Meet the user intent because it has keyword matches only and is unhelpful for the query.
Query: [what is wedding in spanish]

 

User Intent: Find how to say the word “wedding” in Spanish.

 

 

The translation in the result block is completely wrong and inaccurate.

 

Mañana means “tomorrow,” not “wedding.”

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Fails to Meet Explanation
 

 

Query: [american express]

 

User Intent: Go to the American Express card website or get information about the company and its products and services.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The LP is a humorous blog post about a wife helping her husband to buy a suit. The page mentions “American Express,” but is insufficiently related to the query to be helpful for users, so it Fails to Meet the user intent.

 

Note: Even if this blog post were more recent, it would still fail to meet the user intent.

Query: [how to quit smoking]

 

User Intent: Find information on ways to quit smoking.

 

 

This LP has gibberish text. Read this sentence: “How do you make a cigarette symbol on the keyboard? In.” This result is unhelpful for the query.
 

 

Query: [air canada phone number]

 

User Intent: Find the customer service phone number for the airline Air Canada.

 

 

 

Remember that you should check for the factual accuracy of answers. For this result, go to the company’s page at www.aircanada.com/en/customer care/int/ and select USA to check the number shown here.

According to the airline’s website, the correct phone number is

1-888-247-2262. Because this answer is incorrect, it should be rated Fails to Meet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [miley cyrus]

 

User Intent: Find information about the American singer/actress Miley Cyrus, such as biographical info, discography/filmography, current news, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Miley Cyrus was alive at the time this example was written. This LP is an article written by an unknown author that was designed to look like a news story and falsely states that she died. The article has not been updated, clarified, or removed even days after having been proven false. This result is useless so it should be rated Fails to Meet.

 

Remember: Just because a website has the look and feel of a traditional news site does NOT mean that you should consider the reporting to be factually accurate without further research. Watch out for sites that present themselves as news, but were actually created with the intent to mislead or misinform users.

 

Query and User Intent Result Rating Fails to Meet Explanation
 

 

 

 

Query: [who is hitler’s daughter]

 

User Intent: Find the name of or information about Adolf Hitler’s daughter, if Hitler in fact had a daughter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This LP is a blog post presenting a factually unsupported conspiracy theory that Angela Merkel is the daughter of Adolph Hitler. Because the MC is inaccurate and misleading, it completely Fails to Meet the user intent, even though the topic of the page matches the query.

 

Note: A more helpful result for this query might confirm that Adolf Hitler had no children, or provide information on the novel Hitler’s Daughter by Jackie French.

 

14.0 The Relationship between Page Quality and Needs Met

The Needs Met rating is based on both the query and the result. You must carefully think about the query and user intent when assigning a Needs Met rating.

 

The Page Quality rating slider does not depend on the query. Do not think about the query when assigning a Page Quality rating to the LP.

 

Some results don’t have a Page Quality slider. If a result block has no Page Quality rating slider, you do not have to give a Page Quality rating. If there is a Page Quality slider, please assign a Page Quality rating based on the landing page.

Here is some guidance about assigning Needs Met and Page Quality ratings:

 

  • Useless results should always be rated FailsM, even if the landing page has a high Page Quality Useless is useless.

 

  • The HM rating is not appropriate if a page is untrustworthy or has any other undesirable characteristics, such as outdated or inaccurate information. There are very high standards for the HM

 

  • A page can have such low Page Quality that it is unhelpful or even harmful, such as gibberish pages or These types of extremely low quality pages should be rated FailsM because the Page Quality issues interfere with helpfulness. (An exception is queries with clear website intent, where the target website should be rated FullyM. People are allowed to search for any website and search engines should honor that intent when it is clear.)

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating, Page Quality Rating Explanation
 

 

 

 

Needs Met: Even though the article is topical, the information is not trustworthy and is potentially misleading or harmful. This result is unhelpful for the query.
 

 

Query: [symptoms of dehydration]

Page Quality: This is a YMYL topic. This page has no evidence of medical expertise/authority and is not trustworthy.
User Intent: Find

information about the symptoms of dehydration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Needs Met: This is a very helpful result for the query.

Page Quality: This is a YMYL topic. This page is on a highly authoritative medical website and has a lot of reliable and accurate MC. This page is very trustworthy.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [how many octaves on a guitar]

 

User Intent: Find out the number of octaves on a guitar.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Needs Met: This block shows the number of octaves on a piano, not a guitar. Even though this block has a link to a high quality landing page about pianos, the information shown in the block is inaccurate with respect to the query. This result Fails to Meet the user need.

 

Page Quality: There is a lot of helpful MC on the landing page. The page has medium to high

E-E-A-T. Medium+ to High is an appropriate rating.

 

15.0 Rating Porn, Foreign Language, and Did Not Load Results

You will be asked to assign Porn, Foreign Language, and Did Not Load flags to result blocks when appropriate. Some rating tasks may also ask you to identify Upsetting-Offensive and/or Not-for-Everyone results.

 

All flags should be assigned based on the result alone and do not depend on the query. Here is a screenshot of the flags:

 

Click on the flag name to select it. The flag will turn red and change the “No” to “Yes.” For example, here is a result block that shows when the Foreign Language flag should be used.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating, Flag Explanation
 

 

Query: [baidu.com]

 

Locale: English (US)

 

 

 

 

This LP is the homepage of the Baidu website.

The result is the target page of the query, but is in a foreign language (Chinese).

User Intent: Go to the

Baidu website.

This result merits a FullyM rating and the Foreign Language flag.

 

 

15.1 Porn Flag

 

Please assign the Porn flag to all porn pages, whether the query is porn-seeking or not. The Porn flag does not depend on the query or user intent.

 

This flag should be used if the content inside the result block, or the content on the LP, is pornographic, including porn images, links, text, pop-ups, and/or prominent porn ads. An image may be considered porn in one culture or country, but not another. Please use your judgment and knowledge of your locale.

 

Remember: The Porn flag is used to indicate that the result is porn. It doesn’t matter whether the query “asks for porn”.

 

 

15.2 Needs Met Rating for Porn Results

 

15.2.1 Needs Met Rating for Clear Non-Porn Intent Queries

If the user intent is clearly not porn-seeking, a landing page that has porn for its MC should be rated Fails to Meet.

  • When the user intent is clearly not porn, a porn result should be considered unhelpful or
  • Uninvited porn is a very bad experience for many

 

The following queries should be considered non-porn intent queries: [girls], [wives], [mature women], [gay people], [people kissing], [boy speedos], [moms and sons], [pictures of girls], [pictures of women], [mothers and daughters], [cheerleaders], etc.

 

Remember to assign the Porn flag for all porn pages. Use your judgment and represent users in your locale.

 

Query User Intent Landing Page Rating Porn Flag?
[toys], English (US) Find toys to buy. Example

Warning – this page is porn.

FailsM Yes
[how tall is a camel], English (US) Find the answer to this question about camels. Example

Warning – this page is porn.

FailsM Yes
[car pictures], English (US) Find pictures of cars. Example

Warning – this page is porn.

FailsM Yes

 

15.2.2 Needs Met Rating for Possible Porn Intent Queries

 

Some queries have both non-porn and porn interpretations. For example, the following English (US) queries have both a non-porn and an erotic or porn interpretation: [breast], [sex]. We will call these queries “possible porn intent” queries.

 

For “possible porn intent” queries, please rate as if the non-porn interpretation were dominant, even though some or many users may be looking for porn. For example, please rate the English (US) query [breast] assuming a dominant health or anatomy information intent.

 

Query User Intent Landing Page Rating Porn flag?
[breasts], English (US) Find anatomy or health information about breasts. Example HM No
[breasts], English (US) Find anatomy or health information about breasts. Example

Warning – this page is porn.

FailsM Yes

 

15.2.3 Needs Met Rating for Clear Porn Intent Queries

For very clear porn intent queries, assign a rating to the porn landing page based on how helpful it is for the user. Even though there is porn intent, the page should still be assigned a Porn flag.

 

Do not simply rate all porn pages for porn queries as MM or HM. Even though the query is porn and the result is porn, the page must fit the query and be helpful to get a high Needs Met rating.

Pages that provide a poor user experience, such as pages that try to download malicious software, should also receive low ratings, even if they have some images appropriate for the query.

 

Query User Intent Landing Page Rating Porn Flag?
 

[freeones], English (US)
Navigate to the Freeones homepage. Example: http://www.freeones.com Warning – this page is porn.  

FullyM

 

Yes

 

[freeones], English (US)
Navigate to the Freeones homepage. Example: http://www.baberoad.com Warning – this page is porn.  

FailsM

 

Yes

[anime sex pictures], English (US) Find anime sex pictures. Example

Warning – this page is porn.

MM to HM Yes
[cheerleader porn], English (US) Find porn pictures of cheerleaders. Example

Warning – this page is porn.

MM to HM Yes

 

15.3 Reporting Illegal Images

 

Child Pornography

 

Note: When working on rating projects in any task location or locale, you must follow United States federal law, which considers child pornography to be illegal.

 

Definition of Child Pornography

 

An image is child pornography if it is a visual depiction of someone who appears to be a minor (i.e., under 18 years old) engaged in sexually explicit conduct (e.g., vaginal or anal intercourse, oral sex, bestiality or masturbation as well as lascivious depictions of the genitals), or sadistic or masochistic abuse. The image of sexually explicit conduct can involve a real child; a computer-generated, morphed, composite or otherwise altered image that appears to be a child (think of images that have been altered using “Photoshop”); or an adult who appears to be a child; and the image can be

non-photographic (e.g., drawings, cartoons, anime, paintings, or sculptures) so long as the subject is engaging in sexually explicit conduct that is obscene. If it is indistinguishable from child pornography, it is child pornography.

 

Even if the pornographic image depicts children in a literary (think of the famous book “Lolita”), political (think of political cartoons), artistic, or scientific context, please send the link to your employer/company as instructed below.

 

Depiction of the genitals does not require the genitals to be uncovered. Thus, for example, a video of underage teenage girls dancing erotically, with multiple close-up shots of their covered genitals, or images of children with opaque underwear that focus on the genitalia could be considered child pornography.

 

An image of a naked child (e.g., in the bathtub or at a nudist colony) is not considered child pornography as long as the child is not engaging in sexually explicit conduct, or the focus is not on the child’s genitalia. Visual depictions of adults who look like children (e.g., a 35-year-old man play-acting in diapers, or an obvious woman dressed as a school girl) are not child pornography. If you don’t think it’s a minor, it probably isn’t child pornography. However, if you cannot tell that the person in the image is over 18 (e.g., an under-developed 18-year-old whose body hair has been waxed), that is child pornography.

 

Reporting Instructions

 

Please report images containing child pornography (URLs only) as instructed by your employer/company.

 

 

15.4 Foreign Language Flag

 

15.4.1 Using the Foreign Language Flag

 

Please do not assign the Foreign Language flag when the language on the landing page is one of the following:

 

  • The task language
  • A language that is commonly used by a significant percentage of the population in the task location
  • English

 

For example, most Catalan-speaking users in Spain also speak Spanish. Therefore, for rating tasks in Catalan (ES), the Foreign Language flag should NOT be assigned to landing pages in Catalan, Spanish, or English.

 

Here is a screenshot of a result block that shows when the Foreign Language flag would be used.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating, Flag Explanation
 

 

Query: [baidu]

 

Locale: English (US)

 

 

 

 

This LP is the homepage of the Baidu website.

The result is the target page of the query, but is in a foreign language (Chinese).

User Intent: Go to the

Baidu website.

This result merits a FullyM rating and the Foreign Language flag.

 

Important:

 

  • Please assign the Foreign Language flag even if you personally understand the language, but most users in your locale do not.
  • Please assign the Foreign Language flag based on the language of the landing page, not the appearance of the result block.
  • Please remember to flag all foreign pages with the Foreign Language flag, even if most users in your locale would expect or want a foreign language page for the query.
  • Sometimes it is difficult to determine what language the landing page is in. The LP may have multiple languages or no words at In these cases, try to represent users in your locale. Does it feel like a foreign language page? When in doubt, don’t use the Foreign Language flag.

 

15.4.2 Needs Met Rating for Foreign Language Results

 

You must assign a Needs Met rating for all result blocks in your task, even if the result blocks have a foreign language landing page.

 

In most cases, pages you flag as Foreign Language should be rated FailsM, because they cannot be understood by most users in your locale and are therefore useless. Remember that if users in your locale can read the language, then you shouldn’t be using the Foreign Language flag. Occasionally, you will encounter helpful Foreign Language pages.

 

If the query clearly indicates that most users would expect or want a foreign language result, then the Needs Met rating of the foreign language page should not be FailsM. For example, please assign the FullyM rating and Foreign Language flag for baidu.com if the query is [baidu.com], English (US).

 

Videos are often an example where foreign language pages are helpful and desired. Think about user intent and what pages are good for users. If the query “asks” for a foreign language song, band, film, sporting event, etc., then a video of the song, band, film, sporting event, etc. is helpful since it can probably be understood or enjoyed even though it is in a foreign language. For these types of queries, foreign language results are often expected.

 

If the video is someone talking about the song, band, film, or event, the result probably cannot be understood or enjoyed and should be assigned a FailsM rating and the Foreign Language flag.

 

Note: If you are unable to evaluate the Page Quality rating of a Foreign Language result, you do not need to assign a Page Quality rating and can leave the slider at N/A.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating Explanation
 

Query:

 

Locale: English (US)

 

User Intent: Watch a video of Celine Dion singing this song.

 

 

 

 

 

This video is just what English (US) users are looking for, even though the video is not in English. The language of the LP is mostly English (even though the video is in French), so the Foreign Language flag is not needed.

 

 

Query: [kasal, kasali, kasalo]

 

Locale: English (US)

 

User Intent: Watch a trailer of this Filipino film or find information about it.

 

 

 

 

The query is for “Kasal, Kasali, Kasalo,” a Filipino film. The LP is a clip from the movie in Filipino (Tagalog), the language spoken in the Philippines. It would be helpful for many English (US) users who type the query, even though it is not in English. Use your judgment when deciding whether to assign the Foreign Language flag.

 

15.5 Did Not Load Flag

 

15.5.1 Using the Did Not Load Flag

Did Not Load is used to indicate technical problems with the webpage that prevent users from viewing any LP content. Use the Did Not Load flag when:

  • The MC of the landing page is a web server or web application error message and there is no other content on the page: no navigation links, no home link, no SC, and no See here for a Wikipedia page on different types of error messages.
  • The landing page is completely blank: no MC, no SC, and no

 

Assign the Did Not Load flag based on the landing page, not the result block.

 

Here is an example of a Did Not Load landing page. You cannot tell that the landing page doesn’t load by looking at the result block.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating, Flag Explanation
 

 

 

 

Query: [douglas instruments]

 

User Intent: Navigate to the homepage of this website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This page displays a generic 404 message. There is no MC, SC, or Ads on the page.

 

This result merits a FailsM rating and the Did Not Load flag.

 

Here are screenshots of other types of landing pages that should be assigned the Did Not Load flag: DNL1, DNL2. You should not use the Did Not Load flag for:

  • Malware warnings, such as “Warning – visiting this site may harm your computer!” (example).
  • Pages that have removed or expired MC (e.g., expired classified listing, removed social media post, products or services unavailable).
  • Pages that are inaccessible because you need a subscription to view the

 

15.5.2 Needs Met Rating and the Did Not Load Flag

 

All result blocks must be given a Needs Met rating. If the landing page truly doesn’t load, assign the Did Not Load flag and rate the page FailsM. True Did Not Load pages are useless.

 

Sometimes the page partially loads or has an error message. Give Needs Met ratings based on how helpful the result is for the query. Error messages can be customized by the website owner and are part of a well-functioning website.

Sometimes these pages are helpful for the query.

 

Note: If you are unable to evaluate the Page Quality rating of a Did Not Load result, you do not need to assign a Page Quality rating and can leave the slider at N/A.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating, Page Quality Rating, Flags Explanation
 

 

 

Query: [boys pink snow shoes]

 

User Intent: Find information about or purchase boys’ snow shoes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Needs Met: The MC has an error message, but the LP has a lot of SC. However, the page has no information about boys pink snow shoes and is unhelpful for the query.

 

Page Quality: This LP is on a well-known, reputable merchant website. Despite the error message, this page does a nice job of explaining the issue and providing a search box, including helpful search tips and customer service information.

 

Do not assign the Did Not Load flag.

 

 

 

 

Query: [bible passages]

 

User Intent: Find specific passages in the Bible.

 

 

 

 

 

Needs Met: In spite of the customized “No results found” message on the LP, it has links to all passages in the Bible, organized by book. This is a very helpful result.

 

Page Quality: This page is a well-known, reputable reference website. In addition to links to all passages in the Bible, this error page provides a search box as well as a suggestion explaining how to refine searches.

 

Do not assign the Did Not Load flag.

 

 

Query: [broadway tickets]

 

User Intent: This is a Know query or Do query. The user wants to search prices and/or purchase tickets to a Broadway show in New York City.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clicking on this result block leads to a malware warning. You can assume that the page is malicious without continuing to the page. As discussed in Sections 4.5.5 and 13.6, you should assign a FailsM Needs Met rating and Lowest Page Quality rating.

 

Do not assign the Did Not Load flag.

 

 

 

Query: [paranormal activity]

 

User Intent: Learn more about the 2007 film Paranormal Activity or the associated film series.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This page cannot be reached because the site’s server IP address was not found.

There is no MC, SC, or Ads on the page.

 

This result merits a FailsM Needs Met rating, and no Page Quality rating is required.

 

Assign the Did Not Load flag.

 

15.6 Additional Flags in Some Rating Tasks

Some rating tasks may ask you to identify Upsetting-Offensive and/or Not-for-Everyone results.

 

Mark content that may be upsetting or offensive from the perspective of a typical user in your locale as

Upsetting-Offensive, keeping in mind that people of all ages, genders, races, religions, and political affiliations use the Internet to understand the world and other points of views.

 

Mark content that may be unpleasant or uncomfortable for some people in your locale (e.g., content that may not be appropriate in a public space, professional environment, or school) as Not-for-Everyone.

 

16.0 Many Types of Helpful Results

 

Some queries may have many different possible meanings, or people may be looking for different things. Make sure to give Highly Meets ratings to very helpful results for all reasonable interpretations and intents, including reasonable minor interpretations.

 

  • Many queries have different possible meanings or Don’t assume – do query research! Results for a diverse set of reasonable interpretations may be very helpful.
  • For any given query interpretation, different users may have different intents. For example, different people who search for [avatar] with the movie in mind could be seeking different kinds of information about the movie. Some may be seeking reviews, others could want to see what people are saying on social media, while others still could be interested in the cast or ways to watch the movie, Results that satisfy different reasonable intents may be very helpful to different users.
  • It’s also possible for a single user to have many different intents for any given query interpretation. That is, one person searching [avatar] could be broadly interested in the movie, and that person might want to browse reviews and social media posts, see the cast, and find out how to watch the movie. A diverse set of results that satisfy different reasonable intents may be very helpful to individual users, too!

 

Results of different types may be helpful for many kinds of queries, including queries with a single, clear interpretation or intent. Consider what kinds of results are helpful for all queries you rate, including:

 

  • Different formats (e.g., text, video, image, audio)
  • Different experiences, perspectives and opinions (e.g., a personal blog or a social media post)
  • Different content depths (e.g., the 10 second summary video and the 1 hour deep dive documentary)
  • Different types of sites: corporate, not for profit, government, social media, forums, personal blogs,
  • … and many more!

 

Make sure all types of very helpful results get a Highly Meets rating. Some queries may benefit from a wide variety of helpful results:

 

  • Queries that seek experiences, opinions and perspectives, such as [should i get a dog], [what does love feel like]
  • Queries that are subjective, such as [best music to run to]
  • Exploration and browsing queries – users may need to see many different options, such as [ideas for bathroom remodel], [black suit], [inexpensive engagement rings]
  • Queries with no single, right answer, such as [how to ask your boss for a raise]

 

 

16.1 Rating Queries with Both Website and Visit-in-Person Intent

 

Some queries have two possible strong intents:

 

  1. Go to the website intent: in order to, for example, find out information, buy something online, make a reservation, schedule an appointment, interact with customer support, or fulfill some other need that can be satisfied online
  2. Visit-in-person intent: user wants to visit the store, business, in person

 

For these queries, result blocks that only satisfy one intent should NOT get a Fully Meets rating.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP Needs Met Rating and Explanation
 

 

 

Query: [target]
User Location:

Jacksonville, Florida

 

User Intent: There are two possible strong user intents: most users probably want to visit a nearby Target location or go to the website to shop online, research products, find prices, etc.

The result block shows three popular Target locations in Jacksonville, with information that is especially helpful for users who want to visit the store. This fulfills the user intent to find a nearby Target location.
The result is very satisfying and fulfills the user intent to shop online or otherwise use the website.
 

Query: [dmv]

User Location:

Belmont, California

 

User Intent: There are two possible strong user intents: most users probably want to visit a nearby DMV location or go to the DMV website to renew a license, pay a fee, find some information, etc.

The result block shows two nearby DMV locations, with information that is especially helpful for users who want to visit the locations. This fulfills the user intent to find a nearby DMV location.
 

 

The result is very satisfying and fulfills the user intent to find information or otherwise use the website (e.g., to review a license, pay a fee).

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP Needs Met Rating and Explanation
 

 

Query: [citibank]

 

User Location: Palo Alto, California

 

User Intent: There are two possible strong user intents: most users probably want to visit a nearby Citibank location or go to the website to bank online.

The result block shows three nearby Citibank locations in the user location of Palo Alto. The information is especially helpful for users who want to visit the bank. This fulfills the user intent to find a nearby Citibank location.
The result is very satisfying and fulfills the user intent to do online banking or otherwise use the website.

 

 

 

17.0 Specificity of Queries and Landing Pages

Some queries are very general and some queries are specific. Here are some examples that compare levels of specificity of English (US) queries:

 

Query More Specific Query Even More Specific Query
[chair] [dining room chair] [ikea “henriksdal” highback upholstered chair]
[library] [harvard library] [harvard anthropology library]
[interview questions] [interview questions for teachers] [practice interview questions used for teach for america]
[restaurants] [chinese restaurants] [takeout chinese restaurants in downtown Austin]
[coffee shops] [starbucks] [red rock coffee mountain view]

 

Results for specific queries are easier to rate on the Needs Met scale because we know more about what the user is looking for. Giving a Needs Met rating for results for general queries can be difficult. As always, your rating is based on how helpful the result is for the query, not the specificity fit.

 

When the query is a broad category, such as [cafes] [restaurants] [hotels] [books] [tourist attractions in paris] etc., popular and prominent examples may be considered very helpful. Please do web research to help you understand what is popular and prominent in different locations.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block & LP, Needs Met & Page Quality Ratings Explanation
 

 

 

 

Even though there are many options, a page for an individual company that offers different cards could be very helpful.
Needs Met: This LP is more specific than the query, but could still be a very helpful result because Visa is a popular credit card company.
Page Quality: Visa is a credit card company with high E-E-A-T that offers services for credit cards, banking, etc. and has a good reputation. High+ to Highest is an appropriate rating.
 

 

 

 

Even though there are many options, a page for an individual company that offers different cards could be very helpful.
Needs Met: This LP is more specific than the query, but could still be a very helpful result because Discover is a popular credit card company.
Query: [credit cards]

 

User Intent: Users are probably looking to sign up for a credit card online, or want to research credit cards before signing up.

Page Quality: Discover is a company with high E-E-A-T that offers services for credit cards, banking, etc. with a good reputation. High+ to Highest is an appropriate rating.
 

 

 

 

This page offers a list of top credit cards in a variety of categories.

 

Needs Met: This LP fits the query. It would be helpful for most users.

Page Quality: This website helps consumers make money decisions. It has a good reputation, high E-E-A-T, and has been recommended by several major newspapers. High is an appropriate rating.
 

 

 

 

 

This page describes a credit card that requires union membership.
Needs Met: Since the credit card requires union membership, this result is an unlikely minor interpretation for the broad query about credit cards.
Page Quality: This company is an expert on its own credit card, which is issued by HSBC Bank, a financial services organization with a good reputation and high E-E-A-T. High is an appropriate rating.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block & LP, Needs Met & Page Quality Ratings Explanation
 

 

 

 

This is a popular travel aggregator website, and the hotel page on the site can help users find hotels in the U.S. Users can read reviews, compare hotels, or make a reservation.
Needs Met: This LP fits the query. This is a very helpful result.
Page Quality: Orbitz is a popular website with high E-E-A-T and a good reputation. High is an appropriate rating.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is a very popular hotel chain with hotels available in the majority of the U.S. at many different price points.
Even though the list of possible hotel chains is long, the homepage of an individual chain that offers different prices, features, and location options could be very helpful.
Query: [hotels]

 

User Intent: Users are probably planning a trip, but this query is very general and vague.

Needs Met: This LP is more specific than the query, but could still be a very helpful result because the Marriott is a popular chain of hotels.

 

Page Quality: The Marriott website gives information on Marriott hotels, a popular chain of hotels. Marriott has a good reputation and is an expert on Marriott hotels, making the information on this page highly authoritative. High+ to Highest is an appropriate rating.

 

 

 

 

 

This is the webpage of the Marriott Courtyard hotel in Emeryville, California.
Needs Met: The LP is too specific for the query, but this is a well-known brand and users can navigate to other Marriott hotels from this page. This is a less helpful result.
Page Quality: The Marriott website gives information on Marriott hotels, a popular chain of hotels. Marriott has a good reputation and is an expert on Marriott hotels, making the information on this page highly authoritative. High+ to Highest is an appropriate rating.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block & LP, Needs Met & Page Quality Ratings Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Needs Met: The result block shows three popular Target locations in Jacksonville, with information that is especially helpful for users who want to visit the store.

 

 

Query: [target]

No Page Quality rating required
User Location:

Jacksonville, Florida

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The LP is the Target website.

User Intent: Go to target.com or find a nearby Target store. Needs Met: The result is very satisfying for users that want to go to the website.
Page Quality: Target is a popular shopping website in the U.S. with high

E-E-A-T and is trusted by users for online purchases. High to High+ is an appropriate rating.

 

 

 

 

 

The LP is the “store locator” page on the Target website.
Needs Met: Even though the LP is more specific than the query, this result would be very helpful for users who issued this query with the intent to find Target locations to visit in person.
Page Quality: Target is the expert about where its stores are located. This page is the most authoritative page on this topic. High+ to Highest is an appropriate rating.
 

 

 

 

The LP on the Target website is for a specific type of women’s pants.
Query: [target]
User Location:

Jacksonville, Florida

Needs Met: The LP is much more specific than the query and is an unlikely to no chance interpretation of the query.
User Intent: Go to target.com or find a nearby Target store. Page Quality: Target is a popular shopping website in the U.S. with high

E-E-A-T and is trusted by users for online purchases. High to High+ is an appropriate rating.

 

18.0 Needs Met Rating and Freshness

Some queries demand very recent or “fresh” information. Users may be looking for “breaking news,” such as an important event or natural disaster happening right now. Here are different types of queries demanding current/recent results.

 

Type of Query Example Queries Explanation
 

 

“Breaking news” queries

 

 

[tornado], [tsunami]
Assume users need the information right away.

 

Imagine someone who needs immediate weather information because a big storm is coming. Information about last year’s weather would not be helpful.

 

 

Recurring event queries, such as elections, sports events, TV shows, conferences, etc.

 

 

[olympics], [american idol], [redsox schedule], [tax forms], [elections]
Assume users are looking for the most recent or current information about the event.

 

For example, if the Olympics are happening right now, users searching [olympics] want information about the current Olympics, not results from years ago. If the next Olympics are a few months away, users are probably interested in the

upcoming Olympics.

Current information queries [population of paris], [amount of

u.s. debt], [airfare from ny to sfo], [next federal holiday]

Assume users are looking for the most current information, such as prices or airfare.
Product queries [iphone], [toyota camry], [windows operating system] Assume users are looking for information about the most recent model/version for these product queries.

 

When a query demands recent content, only pages with current, recent, or updated content should get high Needs Met ratings. For these queries, pages about past events, old product models and prices, outdated information, etc. are not helpful. They should be considered “stale” and given low Needs Met ratings. In some cases, stale results are useless and should be rated FailsM.

 

For some queries, there may be “newsy” or recent information user intent, as well as more “timeless” information user intent. Users issuing queries for celebrities or politicians may be interested in biographical information, or users may be looking for the latest news or gossip.

 

Freshness is generally less of a concern for Page Quality rating. “Stale” pages can have high Page Quality ratings. For example, some highly reputable news websites maintain “archival” content. However, unmaintained/abandoned “old” websites or unmaintained and inaccurate/misleading content is a reason for a low Page Quality rating.

 

Note: The date the page was created may be different from when the content was last updated or modified. When content is updated, the page will sometimes show the date of the update, not the date the page was created. Some websites always show the current date, regardless of when the content was last updated. If you are curious about the content of a page, see here to try the “Wayback Machine” on the Internet Archive. Not all pages are available, but this tool may help you understand how some pages were created and how their content has changed over time.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating, Page Quality Rating Explanation
 

 

 

Query: [los angeles traffic]

 

User Location: Los Angeles, California

 

User Intent: Users are looking for current information about traffic conditions in Los Angeles. Even pages about traffic conditions the day before would be considered stale for the query.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This LP shows traffic conditions in Los Angeles on August 7, 2012, which is the day this example was written.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This LP shows traffic conditions in Los Angeles on August 6, 2012.

It is stale and useless for the query even though it is only one day old.

 

 

 

 

Query: [nobel peace prize winner]

 

User Intent: Find the name of the most recent winner of this prize. This is a Know Simple query. At the time this example was originally written, 2011 was the most recent year that the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This LP on the New York Times website has information about the most recent winner of this prize, based on the date when this example was written.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This LP on the BBC website has information about the 2006 winner of this prize. The 2006 winners of the prize may is an extremely minor interpretation of the query, so this page is stale for the query.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating, Page Quality Rating Explanation
 

 

 

 

Query: [arthritis]

 

User Intent: Users are looking for information about this disease.

Because there is ongoing research done on treatments and cures for most diseases, users are probably looking for authoritative, up-to-date information on arthritis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medline Plus is an authoritative website that regularly updates its content.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This 2006 article is extremely stale for this medical query. For this type of query, old medical news is generally unhelpful and potentially dangerous.

 

 

 

 

Query: [when was franklin d roosevelt born]

 

User Intent: Users want to find this well understood fact.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This LP has the information users are looking for. This query does not require fresh results.

We couldn’t find a stale page for this query. N/A

 

19.0 Misspelled and Mistyped Queries and Results

19.1 Misspelled and Mistyped Queries

 

You will notice that some queries are misspelled or mistyped. Here are some examples of queries that are obviously misspelled:

 

Misspelled Query Query Interpretation
[federal expres], English (US) The only reasonable query interpretation is the company named Federal Express.
[new england patroits], English US) The only reasonable interpretation is the NFL football team.
[byonce knowles], English (US) The only reasonable interpretation is the famous singer/actress, Beyonce Knowles.

 

Some misspelled or mistyped queries are more difficult to interpret. Use your judgment and do query research.

 

For obviously misspelled or mistyped queries, you should base your rating on user intent, not necessarily on exactly how the query has been spelled or typed by the user.

 

For queries that are not obviously misspelled or mistyped, you should respect the query as written, and assume users are looking for results for the query as it is spelled.

 

19.2 Name Queries

 

Consider the query [john stuart], English (US). There is a very famous Jon Stewart, the comedian and former host of a popular U.S. television show. However, we should not assume that the query [john stuart] has been misspelled. There are many people named John Stuart. We will respect the query as written and assume the user is looking for someone named “John Stuart.”

 

Query and Possible User Intents Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating, Page Quality Rating Explanation
 

Query: [micheal jordan], English (US)

 

User Intent: There are many people named “Micheal Jordan.”

 

Helpful results for more prominent people named Micheal Jordan should receive higher ratings than helpful results for less prominent people named Micheal Jordan.

 

 

 

 

The page lists all members of the LinkedIn site named “Micheal Jordan.” LinkedIn is a very popular social networking website for professionals in the U.S. This result would be very helpful for users trying to find information about someone named “Micheal Jordan.”
 

 

 

 

 

Because Michael Jordan is such a famous athlete/celebrity, we will consider Michael Jordan to be an unlikely minor interpretation.

This is a somewhat helpful result for an unlikely minor interpretation of the query.

 

 

20.0 Non-Fully Meets Results for URL Queries

Raters sometimes ask the question, “For a well-formed working URL query, are the only acceptable Needs Met ratings for a result either Fully Meets or Fails to Meet?” The answer is no. There can be other helpful results for URL queries.

 

Finding information about a website is a reasonable interpretation and intent for URL queries, as some users issue URL queries to find information about a website, such as reviews or recent news. We recommended this to you as one method of reputation research in the PQ guidelines. Real users do this too. Results that give reviews and reputation information can be very helpful for a URL query.

 

However, websites that offer usage statistics about a website are not usually helpful results for URL queries. Most users aren’t interested in this kind of information.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating, Page Quality Rating Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This LP is the target of the query.

Query:

[potterybarn.com]

 

User Intent: Pottery Barn is a home furnishing store. Users may want to go to the website, do research, or find more information on the company.

 

 

 

 

Online coupon codes are very popular in the U.S. and this LP (from a well-known coupon site) displays codes for online purchases on the Pottery Barn website. Users may be interested in coupon codes and this would be very helpful for those shopping online at potterybarn.com, especially frequent shoppers.
 

 

 

 

 

This LP (from a well-known review site) has reviews of the potterybarn.com website. Users may be interested in reading reviews when considering whether to make purchases at potterybarn.com, especially new shoppers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This LP is the target of the query.

 

Query:

[ratemyprofessors.com]
 

 

 

User Intent: Go to www.ratemyprofessors.c om, a website where students can rate their college professors.  

This LP is an extensive encyclopedia article for the queried URL. It contains many helpful sections, including information detailing the rating process, comparison with in-class evaluations, criticism, etc. This is a very helpful result for a reasonable interpretation of the query.

 

21.0 Product Queries: Importance of Browsing and Researching

Some product queries, such as [ipad reviews], have a clear information-seeking (Know) intent. Other product queries, such as [buy ipad], have a clear purchase (Do) intent. And some product queries, such as [ipad store.apple.com], have a clear navigation (Website) intent. However, most product queries don’t obviously specify one type of intent.

 

Keep in mind that many users enjoy browsing and visually exploring products online, similar to window shopping in real life. Give high Needs Met ratings to results that allow users to research, browse, and decide what to purchase.

 

Users may not always plan to buy products online that they are browsing and researching, for example, cars or major appliances. Even though the ultimate goal may be to purchase a product, many other activities may take place first: researching the product (reviews, technical specifications), understanding the options that are available (brands, models, pricing), viewing and considering various options (browsing), etc.

 

Important: Page Quality ratings for product results need extra care and attention.

 

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating, Page Quality Rating Explanation
 

Query: [high definition tv]

 

User Intent: This query doesn’t specify a size or brand of TV. Users are probably doing research before making a purchase.

 

 

 

 

 

This LP has comprehensive information about different types of high definition TVs (plasma, LCD, LED), as well as reviews about many specific models. The website is known for having helpful reviews and information about electronics.

 

 

Query: [girl toddler jeans size 3T]

 

User Intent: The query is very specific. The user wants to browse and find an item to buy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is a helpful page for browsing and shopping for toddler girls jeans. There are many options for jeans in size 3T. This is a high quality store known for selling jeans.

 

 

Query: [cufflinks]

 

User Intent: Most users probably want to find different cufflink styles and options to browse or purchase.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This LP has a large collection of cufflinks from a very reputable retailer. There are many options and styles. This is a good page for browsing. There are helpful features at the top to choose styles, price ranges, etc.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating Explanation
 

 

 

Query: [twist of fate ring pandora]

 

User Intent: The user is looking for a specific ring sold by the Pandora brand and likely wants to research the ring, see what it looks like, find options to browse or purchase, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This result has a variety of images of the ring, showing different angles and materials. Knowing what the ring looks like is very helpful to users who are researching the product and browsing options that are available.

 

22.0 Rating Visit-in-Person Intent Queries

When there is a user location for a visit-in-person intent query and a location has not been specified in the query itself, such as [chinese restaurants] with a user location of Boston, MA, results in or near the user location are the most helpful.

 

How close is “near”? The type of business and/or entity should be taken into consideration when deciding if the distance of the visit-in-person result is too far. For example, most people are not willing to travel very far for a gas station, coffee shop, supermarket, etc. Those are types of businesses that most users expect to find nearby.

 

However, users might be willing to travel a little farther for certain kinds of visit-in-person results: doctors’ offices, libraries, specific types of restaurants, public facilities like swimming pools, hiking trails in open spaces, etc. Sometimes users may accept results that are even farther away, such as a very specialized medical clinic.

 

In other words, when we say users are looking for results “nearby,” the word “nearby” can mean different distances for different queries. As always, please use your judgment.

 

22.1 Examples Where User Location Does (and Does Not) Matter

As previously mentioned, the user location may not always change our understanding of the query and user intent. Below is one example where user location plays an important role, and two examples where user location does not matter.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating Explanation
 

 

 

This result block displays the complete and correct answer prominently in the result block, in a way that is easy for users on mobile devices to read.
 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [minimum wage rate]

Note: Assume that the result shows current information for users at the time this example was written. If you were rating this task, you would need to verify that the minimum wage rate in this result block is accurate for the state of Kansas.
 

 

 

User Location: Wichita, Kansas

 

User Intent: Find out what the current minimum wage is.

Different states in the

U.S. have different minimum wage rates. Users might be interested in the minimum wage in their state and how it compares to other places.

 

This is the official Kansas state website page on minimum wage for Kansas.

 

 

 

 

This LP has the minimum wage rates for all states. It is on the official U.S. Department of Labor website. Though it takes some work to find the information specific to Kansas, this is a very helpful result for users seeking general information about the minimum wage rate.

 

 

 

 

 

This is the official California state website page on minimum wage for California.

Given the user location, this is an unhelpful result.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [amazon jobs]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The user is looking for a job at Amazon and there is no information in this result block that will help the user explore job opportunities—it Fails to Meet the user need.

User Location: Miami, Florida
User Intent: Users are looking for job opportunities at Amazon.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is Amazon’s official page on careers and jobs at Amazon, where users can search for currently open opportunities. This page is exactly what the user is looking for—it Fully Meets the user need.

 

23.0 Rating English Language Results in Non-English Locales

The following rating guidance is for raters in non-English locales. You may stop reading this section if your task language is English, such as English (US), English (IN), English (NG), etc.

 

Your Needs Met ratings should reflect how helpful the result is for users in your locale. When the query is in the language of your locale, assume that users want results in that language. We know that you can read English (you are reading this document!), but you should only give high Needs Met ratings to English results if users in your locale would expect or want them for a particular query. Unless requested by the query, English results should be considered useless if most users in the locale can’t read them.

 

However, rating can be more difficult when the query includes English names, words, etc., or when it’s unclear whether English results would be satisfying for a particular query. Please use your judgment and knowledge of your locale to determine the appropriate rating.

 

Important: Please keep in mind that every locale will have unique considerations regarding the number and variety of languages (such as official languages, regional languages, local dialects, etc.), writing systems, and keyboard input languages commonly in use. While these guidelines may not include examples for your locale, it is important that you represent users in your task location and culture in order to interpret the query and rate results. When in doubt, please assume that users would prefer results in the task language unless the query clearly indicates otherwise.

 

23.1 Examples of English (and Non-English) Results in Non-English Locales

 

The section includes some examples using Hindi (IN) and Korean (KR) as the locales. In both cases, we cannot assume that users in these locales—i.e., Hindi-speaking users in India, or Korean-speaking users in Korea—are able to read English. Unless most users in the locale would be satisfied by English results for the query, we will consider them unhelpful or even useless (FailsM).

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [राजा र व वमा ]

Locale: Hindi (IN)

 

User Intent: The user wants to find information

about राजा र व वमा , an Indian artist.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This Hindi language Wikipedia page on राजा र व वमा is very helpful for Hindi (IN) users.

 

 

 

 

 

This English Wikipedia page about राजा र व वमा has similar content to the Hindi Wikipedia

page. Although there are some helpful images on the page, few Hindi users would be able to read this page.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [버락 오바마]

Locale: Korean (KR)

 

User Intent: 버락 오바마 is Barack Obama in Korean, so the user

wants to find information about Barack Obama.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This Korean language Wikipedia page on Barack Obama is very helpful for Korean (KR) users.

 

 

 

 

 

This English Wikipedia page about Barack Obama has similar content to the Korean Wikipedia page. Although there are some helpful images on the page, very few Korean users would be able to read this page.

 

Here are two examples where the query includes proper nouns typed in Latin script, such as famous people, places, titles of books or films, etc. For these queries, users would prefer to see results in the language of their locale.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [ronaldo]

 

Locale: Hindi (IN)

 

User Intent: The user wants to find information about Cristiano Ronaldo, a famous footballer.

 

 

 

 

Although the query was typed in Latin script, most Hindi users would want to see information about this person in Hindi. This Hindi language Wikipedia page on Cristiano Ronaldo is very helpful for Hindi (IN) users.

 

 

 

 

 

This English Wikipedia page about Cristiano Ronaldo has similar content to the Hindi Wikipedia page. Although there are some helpful images on the page, few Hindi users would be able to read this page.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [titanic 1997]

 

Locale: Korean (KR)

 

User Intent: The user wants to purchase a DVD or find information about the movie “Titanic,” released in 1997.

 

 

 

 

Although the query was typed in Latin script, most Korean users would expect to see Korean language reviews or Korean stores for purchasing the movie. This Korean result on a Korean website is very helpful.

 

 

 

 

 

This English language landing page has helpful content for users who can read English. Although there are some helpful images on the page, very few Korean users would be able to read this page.

 

Here are two additional examples where the query was typed in Latin script (including some English words), yet users would still prefer to see results in the language of their locale.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [mahila cricket sri lanka ka match]

 

Locale: Hindi (IN)

 

User Intent: The user wants to find information about a women’s cricket match against Sri Lanka on February 17, 2016.

 

 

 

 

 

Although the query includes some English words, it is a Hindi query typed in Latin script. Most Hindi users would expect to see Hindi results, like this helpful article.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This English language landing page has helpful content for users who can read English, but few Hindi (IN) users would be able to read this page.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [samsung tablet]

 

Locale: Korean (KR)

 

User Intent: The user wants to purchase, find information, or go to the Galaxy tablet page on the Samsung website.

 

 

 

 

 

Although the query was typed in Latin script and includes some English words, most Korean users would expect to see the Korean page on the Samsung website. This Korean result is very helpful.

 

 

 

 

 

This English language page on the website of Samsung, the company that makes this tablet, has helpful content. Although there are some helpful images on the page, very few Korean users would be able to read this page.

 

On the other hand, there may be queries where the needs of most users would actually be satisfied by English language results, even if the query itself is typed in the task language.

 

For example, for queries about global businesses and organizations, users may expect or want to visit the English language version of the business/organization’s official website in some locales. Similarly, for queries seeking technical information such as manufacturer part numbers, product specs, scientific or chemical formulas, etc., the answer to the query may be typically expressed in the English language in some locales.

 

For these queries, users may expect or want to see English results in order to satisfy their need. Please use your judgment and knowledge of your locale to determine the appropriate rating.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating Explanation
 

Query: [हाव ड वेबसाइट]

Locale: Hindi (IN)

User Intent: हाव ड वेबसाइट is “Harvard website” in Hindi. Users want to go to the official website of Harvard University, which is a well-known research university in

Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is the official website of Harvard University. Even though the query was typed in Hindi, this English website is clearly what users are looking for. Users would be fully satisfied by this result.

Query: [시스코 카탈리스트 스위치

IOS 복원하기]

Locale: Korean (KR)

 

User Intent: This Korean query can be translated as “recovering IOS on Cisco Catalyst switches”. The user wants to find out how to restore the IOS operating system on a Cisco Catalyst switch, which is a specific brand/model of computer networking device.

 

 

 

 

This article comes from a blog that contains lots of technical information and troubleshooting tips about IT operations and programming. The landing page provides step-by-step instructions in Korean, along with the exact commands in English that users would need to type into a console in order to recover the operating system for the queried device.

This tutorial would be very helpful and easy to follow for Korean users who are familiar with this type of networking device.

 

Finally, in some locales, English is one of the official languages or a commonly spoken language. In these locales, English websites are easy to use and could be helpful, depending on the query.

 

For example, the Singapore government recognizes four official languages: English, Malay, Chinese, and Tamil, but English is the first and most dominant language in Singapore.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating Explanation
 

 

Query: [barack obama]

 

 

 

Locale: English (SG)

 

User Intent: Find information about Barack Obama.

This Wikipedia page in English about Obama would be very helpful to users in Singapore.

 

 

24.0 Rating Dictionary and Encyclopedia Results for Different Queries

 

When assigning Needs Met ratings for dictionary and encyclopedia results, careful attention must be paid to the user intent. Like all results, the helpfulness of dictionary and encyclopedia results depend on the query and user intent.

 

Dictionary and encyclopedia results may be topically relevant for many searches, but often these results are not helpful for common words that most people in your rating locale already understand. Reserve high Needs Met ratings for dictionary and encyclopedia results when the user intent for the query is likely “what is it” or “what does it mean” and the result is helpful for users seeking that type of information.

 

Important: Think about how helpful it is to get dictionary or encyclopedia results for very common words. Often there may be much more likely and reasonable intents. If you think most people know the meaning of the word and it is unlikely that people would be looking for the definition, a Slightly Meets rating may be appropriate.

 

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating Explanation
 

 

 

 

Query: [obsequious]

 

User Intent: Users are probably looking for the definition of this vocabulary word.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is a vocabulary word often studied in secondary school and found on college entrance exams. Many users may be looking for a definition and would find this dictionary result helpful.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating Explanation
 

 

 

Query: [rainbow]

 

User Intent: This is a broad query. Users could be looking for many things, including images of rainbows, brands or local stores/organizations with “rainbow” in their name, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Most users probably already know what a rainbow is and would not be looking for a definition. Even if the user needs help understanding the word, images or a simple description would be more helpful than this dictionary result.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [cafeteria]

 

User Location: Eugene, Oregon

 

User Intent: Most

English-speaking users in the US are familiar with cafeterias. Users are most likely looking for a place to eat.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Most users are looking for a place to eat rather than general information about cafeterias.

Even though this is an in-depth encyclopedia article that matches the topic of the query, this is not a very helpful result.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Query: [history of ATM machines]

 

User Intent: Find information about the history of ATM machines (e.g., the inventor, when it was invented, its evolution, etc.).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The user wants to learn more information about the history of ATM machines. This encyclopedia article includes an extensive section on ATM machine history. This is a very helpful result.

 

Query and User Intent Result Block and LP, Needs Met Rating Explanation
 

 

 

 

 

Query: [atm near me]

 

User Location: Livingston, Wyoming

 

User Intent: Find ATMs near the user location.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The user intent is to find a nearby ATM machine. This encyclopedia article fails to meet the need of the user because it has no information about nearby ATM locations.

 

Appendix 1: Using the Evaluation Platform

 

25.0 Overview

The Evaluation Platform is the system you will use to acquire and rate tasks. You can access the Evaluation Platform by going to this link: http://www.raterhub.com/evaluation/rater

 

As a Search Quality Rater, you will work on many different types of rating tasks. This section provides guidance on how to use certain features of the Evaluation Platform that you will encounter frequently in Page Quality (PQ) and Needs Met (NM) rating tasks. Some of these concepts may apply to other types of rating tasks as well.

 

Important: Many tasks that you receive will display project-specific instructions on the task page. You should always follow these project-specific instructions when they are provided.

 

 

26.0 Acquiring Tasks

Here is a simplified screenshot of the task acquisition page on the Evaluation Platform. Please note that changes are sometimes made to the appearance of this page, so it may not look exactly as it appears below.

 

A few notes about how to acquire tasks from this page:

  • rater@gmail.com: Make sure you are logged in to the account you used to sign up for the rating
  • Acquire if available: Click this button to acquire a new
  • Headphones or speakers required: This label indicates that the task requires headphones or speakers (for example, to listen to an audio file).

Please note you may see other types of labels next to the button on the task acquisition page. Sometimes there will be only one button, while other times you may see more than one button displayed to distinguish tasks with different requirements. When there is more than one displayed, you may choose the one you want to acquire.

 

27.0 Rating Tasks Using the Rating Interface

Here is a general outline of the steps you should follow upon acquiring a task:

  1. Read the instructions: Pay close attention to any project-specific instructions and examples if
  2. Fill out the task: Assign ratings to result blocks, provide comments, answer questions, (as applicable).
  3. Check your work: Verify that you entered your ratings as Additionally, make sure that you provided a response to all required questions.
  4. Submit the task: Click the “Submit” button at the end of the page to submit the task and continue rating. Alternatively, click “Submit and Stop Rating” to submit the task and return to the Evaluation Platform

 

Additionally, here are a few general things to keep in mind when rating tasks:

  • Result blocks are sometimes slow to load: Before assigning any ratings, please scan the task page to make sure that all result blocks have loaded. Please note that result blocks may be slow to load and/or that the task page may need reloading if there are empty result blocks. If the result blocks fail to load after refreshing a few times, please release the task by following the instructions in Section 28.0
  • Sometimes a side will not have any result blocks: If one side displays the message “This side did not generate any results,” please do not release the task.
  • Do not refresh the task page after assigning ratings: If you refresh the page after assigning ratings, you will lose them and they will have to be entered again.

 

 

28.0 Releasing Tasks

Most raters have difficulty rating some tasks now and then. Some queries are about highly technical topics (e.g., computer science or physics) or involve very specialized areas of interest (e.g., gaming or torrents).

 

You will report problems and release tasks using the “Report a Problem / Release this Task” button in the rating interface. Here is what the “Report a Problem / Release this Task” button looks like:

Clicking the red button displays a menu with several reporting and release options:

Please note that changes are sometimes made to this menu, so it may not look exactly as it appears above.

 

In general, you should choose whichever option best describes your reason for releasing the task. If you are unsure, please select the closest option, or contact your employer/company for further guidance.

 

Please leave a comment explaining the release when it makes sense to provide additional information, for example, when you are releasing for a “technical problem.”

 

Here are some examples for the “lack expertise” and “technical problem” release options.

 

Lack expertise: These queries require specialized knowledge and may be difficult for some raters.

 

Query General Query Topic
[cortisol secretion shows a blank pattern of secretion] Scientific query
[minecraft gun and vehicles 1.1 mod installer] Gaming query
[python pandas index like matrix] Technical query

 

Technical problem: These result blocks have question marks and other characters where text should be.

 

 

Note: Based on the number and/or type of tasks that you release, you may be asked to provide additional details about the reason for some of the releases.

 

29.0 Understanding the User Location on the Task Page

The location of the user should be inferred from the map provided. The map can help clarify where the user was physically located when the query was issued.

 

On the map, the user location can be precise (blue dot), approximate (blue rectangle or circle), or missing altogether if the user location is unknown. Here are some examples of what you might see at the top of the task:

 

A precise user location is represented by a blue dot ( ). Sometimes you will see a shaded blue circle around the blue dot. The blue dot is the user’s most likely location, but it is possible they are located anywhere within the larger shaded blue region.
The user can be located The map includes a
anywhere within the response pin, which is a
blue rectangle on the marker for a
map. visit-in-person result
block in the task. If
there are three
visit-in-person result
blocks in the task, there
should be three
response pins on the
map.

 

30.0 Reporting Duplicate Results in Tasks

 

In some rating tasks, you may be asked to determine whether any results are Duplicates (dupes). This section provides guidance and examples of how to report duplicate results In Needs Met (NM) rating tasks.

 

 

30.1 Pre-Identified Duplicates

 

Some duplicate results are automatically detected and will be pre-identified for you. They will be annotated by the text “Same as…” right below the slider and above the result block.

 

This is what these pre-identified dupes look like:

 

Left Side Right Side

 

Please note: You cannot unselect dupes that have been automatically detected and pre-identified.

 

30.2 Rater-Identified Duplicates

 

You are also asked to help identify duplicate results that have not been automatically detected. Please mark two results as dupes if they have essentially the same content on the main landing page AND you would not want a search engine to return both results for the query.

Please note that in Needs Met rating and other query-based tasks, dupe identification is query-dependent.

  • Specific queries: For queries where the user is looking for a specific piece of content (such as queries looking for song lyrics, queries looking for a specific article, etc.), obtaining that piece of content from different sites could be helpful for users to verify the information, so they should not be rated as dupes.
  • Broad queries: If the query is broad, then returning the same piece of content is not what the user is looking for, and hence those results should be flagged as Results may be considered dupes even if they have minor content differences on the page (such as different ads, images, or related links).

Please identify dupes both within the same side and across sides. Even for cross-side results, you should still ask yourself the question, “Would users want to see both results if they were returned by the same search engine?”

 

Note: If two result blocks have very different types of content or very different appearances, do not mark them as duplicates even if they have the same landing page URL. For example, these two blocks should not be marked as duplicates of each other.

 

30.3 Reporting Duplicate Results

 

When you notice that the results in two or more result blocks are duplicates, please click on the Select Dupe link at the top of one of the results. The current result (the result you clicked on) will be highlighted in red at the top of the block.

 

You can then check results that are duplicates of the current result, and the checked results will be highlighted in yellow. You must select the “Dupe of…” button.

 

 

The duplicate results that you checked will be annotated by “Dupe of…” text at the top of the block. After selecting all dupes, click on the finish selecting dupes link to return to the normal rating mode. The link’s name will change back to Select Dupes, and you will be able to report other sets of dupes, if there are any. If you change your mind, you can always uncheck a result.

 

Dupes

QUERY: [choosing and installing a motorcycle battery]

URL 1: http://www.caimag.com/wordpress/2010/03/06/motorcycle-battery-how-to-choose-install

URL 2: http://www.articlesbase.com/motorcycles-articles/choosing-and-installing-a-motorcycle-battery-47798.html Reason: Both of these results display the same article (which also appears on many other pages on the web). The only real difference between the landing pages are the Ads displayed around the article. The query is broad enough that users would not benefit by search engines returning more than one of these results.

 

Dupes

QUERY: [jason castro]

URL 1: http://www.myspace.com/jasoncastromusic

URL 2: http://www.myspace.com/jasoncastromusic?MyToken=503599bf-01cf-4427-bdf4-d63920c107f9

Reason: These two results have the same landing page, even though the URLs are different. Users would not benefit by search engines returning both results.

 

Not Dupes

QUERY: [material girl lyrics]

URL 1: http://www.lyricsfreak.com/m/madonna/material+girl_20086925.html

URL 2: http://www.lyrics007.com/Madonna%20Lyrics/Material%20Girl%20Lyrics.html

Reason: Even though both pages display the lyrics to the song “Material Girl,” users would probably want to have the option to visit both pages so that they could verify the accuracy of the lyrics. Users could benefit by search engines returning more than one page with the lyrics to the song.

 

31.0 Simplified Needs Met Tasks

Some Needs Met rating tasks may not require ratings for all blocks. In these blocks, the Needs Met and Page Quality rating scales will be greyed out and annotated with the text “No Rating Required”.

 

The greyed-out results (sometimes referred to as “contextual results”) are shown to help you understand the query and inform your ratings. You can click on them when you feel like they will be helpful in determining your ratings.

 

Here is an example:

 

Appendix 2: Guideline Change Log

This guideline is updated regularly to remain relevant over time. Changes from the past two years (March 2022 – March 2024) are summarized below.

 

Date Published Summary of Changes
March 2024 ● Updated characteristics of untrustworthy pages and added illustrative examples
November 2023 ● Simplified Needs Met scale definitions and added guidance for specific types of Needs Met ratings; refreshed rating guidance and examples accordingly

● Modernized examples by adding examples for popular platforms and video formats and removing outdated and redundant examples

● Minor changes throughout (expanded rating guidance for forum pages; updated language, examples, and explanations for consistency across sections; fixed typos; etc.)

December 2022 ● Broadly refreshed concepts and rating criteria in ‘Part 1: Page Quality Guideline‘ to be applicable to all types of websites, webpages, and content creation models

● Clarified guidance on ‘Finding Who is Responsible for the Website and Who Created the Content on the Page‘ for different webpage types

● Added summary table with the top ‘Page Quality Considerations‘ involved in PQ rating, which carry through to each PQ rating section (Lowest to Highest)

● Refined/expanded guidance on the following core pillars of Page Quality Rating:

○ ‘Main Content Quality

○ ‘Reputation for Websites and Content Creators

‘Experience, Expertise, Authoritativeness, and Trust (E-E-A-T)

● Reordered PQ rating sections from Lowest to Highest; streamlined transitions between these sections; de-duped existing guidance and examples as appropriate

● Added more guidance to sections on ‘Pages with Error Messages or No MC‘ and ‘Forums and Q&A Pages‘ for each level of the PQ rating scale

● Added new ‘Page Quality Rating FAQs‘ to clarify how Experience factors into PQ rating; minor revisions to other FAQs for consistency

● Reformatted lists of concepts and examples into tables (throughout/as appropriate)

● Minor changes throughout (updated language, examples, and explanations for consistency across sections; removed outdated examples; fixed typos; etc.)

June 2022 ● Refreshed language to be aligned with the newly published Search Quality Rater Guidelines: An Overview

● Refined YMYL to focus on topics that require a high level of accuracy to prevent significant harm; added a new table of examples and refreshed existing examples

● Added clarifications to Low and Lowest Page Quality sections to emphasize that the type and level of E-A-T depends on the purpose of the page, and that low quality and harmful pages can occur on any type of website

● Refactored language throughout to be applicable across all devices types

● Minor changes throughout (updated screenshots; removed or updated outdated examples and concepts; removed user location when irrelevant; etc.)

 

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